A.R Travel
Established in 1970 A.R travel agency has provided a notoriously professional and personal service planning your trips for friends and families for over 50 years! Making sure your trip away is focussed on all your wants and needs while still being at a reasonable price range suitable to you.


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Domestic Tourism- Domestic tourism is people who are travelling inside their own country for tourism purposes. For example, a person travelling from County Armagh to County Fermanagh.
They usually stay away from their own home for at least one night. Domestic tourist may travel by car, train, bus or even plane but they do not leave their country of residence.
Inbound Tourism- Inbound tourism is people coming into a country that is not their residence for the purpose of tourism.
For example, someone who comes into Northern Ireland from France is a form of inbound tourism.
Outbound Tourism- Outbound tourism is people leaving their country of residence to travel to somewhere different for tourism purposes for example leaving Northern Ireland to go to Spain for a holiday. This is usually by plane, boat or sometimes car.

There are two main types of accommodation one being serviced and the other being non serviced these are vital to the tourist industry.
Serviced accommodation offers the person food and cleaning services like housekeeping which is usually at a hotel, bed and breakfast or guest house. This type of accommodation is used for domestic and inbound tourism. An example of serviced accommodation is the Europa hotel located in Belfast which provide breakfast which is usually included with the price of the stay as well as room cleaning that does not cost extra.
Non serviced accommodation does not provide food or cleaning services (also known as self-catering) so the person staying has responsibility for their own meals and the cleaning of the place themselves. An example of non-serviced accommodation is an apartment like Belfast apartments or can be a holiday cottage or a holiday home this is used by inbound and domestic tourism.

Types of Tourists

Leisure- People who travel for a holiday or it can be for religious reasons, due to their culture or for studying. These type of tourists usually use serviced accommodation.
Visiting Friends and Family- People who travel to a different place to see their friend and/or family and usually stay with them which or a serviced accommodation that is close to them.
Business- People who only travel for the purpose of work for example attending an important conference or visiting a work exhibition and can sometimes be to offer new ideas to a business or to do their work themselves in reality instead of digitally so it’s easier to manage.

The four main means of transport are by air, road, sea and rail.

Air- Travelling by air is for inbound and outbound tourism because they go to lots of different places every day. It is easily accessible to most people because the prices of flights are affordable for the working class but also can be luxurious for the upper class. Plane ticket prices can range from only costing £30 to £3,000. cheaper airlines include Ryanair, Wizz Air while more luxurious airlines would be the likes of Emirates and Virgin Atlantic. Because of the prices air transport has become much more preferred to other modes of transport.
Road- Travelling by road is for all three types of tourism domestic, inbound and outbound. If a person is an inbound/outbound traveller they are more likely to take a bus, get a taxi or even rent a car if their trip is longer to get to their destinations. a While a domestic traveller would use their own car or possibly by bus. An example of domestic as well as inbound tourist transport in Northern Ireland would be Translink bus service because it also goes from Ireland to Northern Ireland and all over Northern Ireland too.

Sea-Travelling by sea is for all three types of tourism domestic, inbound, outbound. It is domestic because ferries can be taken from Northern Ireland to England which is still inside the country. A famous ferry that does this is Stena line which goes from Belfast to Liverpool. It is also outbound because people from all over the world take cruises to visit different countries an example of this would be taking a cruise from England to The Bahamas. A cruise company that does trips like this is P;O cruises from Southampton to Portugal. Inbound tourism travel would be coming from the likes of France to England/Northern Ireland.

Rail- Travelling by rail is for inbound, outbound and domestic tourism travel. Tourist do not usually stay in a country for more than 14 days meaning that they want a mode of transport that is fairly cheap and quick and gets then from one place to another. In Northern Ireland there are 54 different train stations called at all over Northern Ireland. There are also trains that go from England to other countries through underwater tunnels which makes them part of the outbound tourism sector as well.


There is a large variation of attractions available in the United Kingdom, ranging from natural, purpose built or heritage.
An example of natural attractions would be The Giants Causeway in Northern Ireland as well as Lulworth Cove in Dorset.
Purpose built attractions would be the likes of London Zoo as well as Alton towers located in Staffordshire.
An example of heritage attractions would be St Patrick’s Cathedral in County Armagh also the Tower of London.
People also go to certain tourist areas for events for example St Patrick’s Day.

Tour Operators

There are two types of tour operators these are the people who will sell packages that have everything needed for a holiday for example plane tickets, transport to and from the airport, accommodation for the duration of the stay as well as any attraction tickets you may want to purchase.
The first being mass market operators. They put together packages to suit everyone’s needs. For example, 2 weeks in party central Ibiza for a group of people or a weekend getaway in Paris. Usually for outbound tourists, they organize the transport, accommodation etc.
The second being a specialist operator. They plan unique trip for outbound tourists, they organize trips for people with shared interests, such as hiking, and would like to engage in such activities during their trip. This type of tour operator organizes travel plans from beginning to end. For example, they may be the organizer for a group safari, but may also collaborate with a wildlife guide or tracker with more experience leading a group on a safari tour.

Travel Agents

A travel agent is a person selling and arranging transportation, accommodations, tours, or trips for travelers usually on behalf of tour operators, they try their best to help you book your holiday and that you are satisfied with the cost and everything else.
The most popular place to contact a travel agent is online through the internet, but can also be in physical shops (retail/business) or through the telephone (call centers). An example of a travel agents would be Oasis travel which is for outbound tourism because it helps you book your holidays outside of the country.
Tourism Development and Promotion
All countries in the UK have public sector organisations that try to promote their country, the responsibility of the DCMS is to support tourism level.
For example, “The Visit Britain” website has information about the events that are taking place in the country and it also has the time and place that its taking place.
The national websites are usually available in a variety of different languages which means they are accessible for visitors from overseas who want to find out information about the UK, so it is usually for domestic and inbound tourism.

Trade Associations and Regulatory Bodies
According to Wikipedia a Trade association is “an organization founded and funded by businesses that operate in a specific industry.” An industry trade association participates in public relations activities such as advertising, education, political donations, lobbying and publishing, but its focus is collaboration between companies. Regulatory bodies are there to make sure travel and tourism operators are safe and efficient with the public, which is very important for people who are outbound tourist and are wanting to go abroad on holiday.

Ancillary Services
These type of services help the primary operations, for example airport car parks that tailor outbound tourist support the airport by giving people a place to park their cars while they are on holidays out of the country. Another would be insurance companies which are for outbound tourists, they protect you and your luggage support the airport because you know that if your items get lost or stolen or you get injured you will be covered an example of this is Travelsupermarket.com

The five primary roles of Travel and Tourism organisations

To meet key organisational aims- The aims of A.R Travel are firstly to make a profit. Profit is having a higher income than outcome meaning they have made more money than it cost to provide this service. Secondly, we try to maximise sales revenue. Sales Revenue is the income from sales of goods and services, minus the cost associated with things like returned or undeliverable merchandise for example a holiday that has been cancelled. Another aim is to increase our market share. Market share represents the percentage of an industry, or market’s total sales, that is earned by a company over a specified period of time. Market share is calculated by taking the company’s sales over the period and dividing it by the total sales of the industry over the same period. This is used to give a general idea of the size of a company in relation to its market and its competitors. Lastly, we aim to make sure that each employee follows the regulations of The Package Travel Regulations 1992.

To provide services and products- We supply products and services in a safe, secure and efficient manner The travel and tourism sector is to provide holidays and other travel services and products. For most companies this means dealing with the public, but may also involve working with other members of the ‘travel trade’, e.g. a tour operator or coach operator may rely on A.R Travel to sell its holidays.

To be responsible to stakeholders- We take responsibility for anyone with an interest in our organisation from customers which we efficiently supply products and different services to in a safe way. As well as shareholders who have invested in our organisation. Lastly we take responsibility in reducing the impact on our neighbours and host communities.

To be environmentally responsible- We have tried to make sure to protect natural attractions by not over occupying the areas as well as taking care of problems like litter as the premises by having council workers working around the clock to look after the destinations. This is important because the earth is deteriorating rapidly due to humans.
To be ethically responsible- Lots of different countries have different laws and regulations that need to be followed to be ethically respectful. As a travel organisation we take responsibility of informing tourist of this information. This is done because it shows respect to the country and the people.

EasyJet’s aims- EasyJet states their purpose “We’re here to connect people across Europe for work and play. We do this by challenging ourselves and our industry to make travel easy and affordable for all. Our unique Orange Spirit defines us and it means we always try to do things in the right way, every day, for our people, our customers, society and the environment.” (EasyJet.com)
They focus on developing strong positions in Europe’s leading airports, EasyJet is currently at 132 airports in 31 countries with 802 different routes and is still growing. They also have a strong capital base with a market capitalisation of £4 billion and net cash position of £213 million (30th September 2016) EasyJet’s credit ratings are amongst the strongest in the world for an airline. (EasyJet.com)
EasyJet’s services and products- They offer costumers more affordable fares they do this by having a higher number of seats on board, having a higher load factor, younger fleets and more advantaged fleets and by reducing ownership and maintenance costs. They also offer a course for nervous flyers to help them deal with their phobias of flying starting at £199. Easyjet aspires to offer its business and leisure passengers safe and simple flights to a large amount of European destinations (Easyjet, 2014). To meet these goals, the company operates a large, fleet comprised of 220 Airbus A320 and A319 (ADS Advance, 2014). The airline is one of the safest and most punctual airlines in Europe, and has invested significant amounts of money in boosting the quality of its product. For example, the company is investing in drone and robots that will be used to carry out safety checks on the aircraft, and the airline is working towards the provision of ‘paperless planes’ which it says will improve efficiency (ADS Advance, 2014). It is normal for one-way tickets to cost passengers more than round-trip tickets. Carriers prefer passengers to make return flights because selling tickets in this way builds convenience into their flight scheduling processes. Passengers who purchase one-way flights make it difficult for carriers to set schedules and make staffing decisions (Nair et al, 2013). EasyJet utilises a different business model, which makes it more straightforward for customers to understand the product and use it.

Stakeholders- EasyJet interacts with several stakeholders in its operations such as customers, suppliers, infrastructure owners and operators for example air traffic control, regulators and national governments. (EasyJet.com)

Environmental responsibility- EasyJet is trying make more efficient use of fuel and to further reduce emissions per passenger kilometre on its flights they do this by using one engine taxiing, by installing lightweight Recaro seats and lastly, they use electronic devices rather than paper documents in the flight deck. (EasyJet.com)

Ethical responsibility- EasyJet is committed to human rights, in its business and its supply chain. This includes observance of the principles set out by the International Labour Organisation Declaration on Fundamental Principles and Rights at Work. They also have in place several other policies which support the recognised human-rights principles. These are policies on non-discrimination, health and safety, whistleblowing and anti-bribery and corruption. Also, they are committed to gender equality, they established their Amy Johnson Initiative in 2015 to encourage more women to consider a career as a pilot. Lastly, they work with trade unions in the eight countries where their employees are based, as well as through national and European Works Councils. (EasyJet.com)

How does EasyJet interrelate with other component industries? EasyJet interrelates with other industries such as other transport by providing shuttle service, taxis as a cheaper cost, train tickets and a bus service. They also interrelate with airports to make sure costumers are on the correct flights at the correct time they do this by having check in counters and staff available if needed for assistance. They also work with banks offering a prepaid card meaning your money can be transferred into euros to use on the aircraft or at your destination. Lastly, they work with booking.com for hotels they have 410 properties in Belfast alone, this is done to get better deals for people who fly with them which is important because it saves money for the costumer as well as being less time-consuming meaning that they will book with EasyJet again. Information sourced from EasyJet.com.

Visit Britain
Visit Britain’s aims-
Visit Britain’s services and products –
Environmental responsibility-
Ethical responsibility-
How does visit Britain interrelate with other component industries?

English Heritage

English heritage’s aims- According to the English heritage website their vision is “that people will experience the story of England where it really happened.” And their priorities are that they want to “create inspiring visitor experiences that bring the story of England to life also that they make sure our historic sites and artefacts are expertly cared for, so that they can be enjoyed by future generations. We’ll find new ways to involve more people in our work and our target is to ensure we’re financially independent by 2022/23.” Some of English heritages aims are
1. Capture the nation’s imagination with a handful of high profile, memorable new visitor experiences and conservation stories.
2. Significantly improve offers across the board, through consistently excellent presentation, interpretation and visitor facilities
3. Draw on deep customer insight to build those experiences, which will give strong local and national appeal
4. Develop digital offers, making the most of new technologies to tell the story of England in vivid new ways and engage a wider public
5. Provide outstanding learning opportunities for all, whether they’re visiting the sites, browsing online or reading our publications (https://www.english-heritage.org.uk/)

English heritage’s services and products- English heritages provides tourists with many natural and physical tourist attractions like Stonehenge which has a shop present that has products like “souvenirs, clothing, books and gifts to provide memories of your visit, many made in the UK exclusively for Stonehenge” they also have a café that offers locally sourced food like “Stonehenge rock cakes and beer from the Stonehenge Brewery as well as deluxe hot chocolate or in summer, Marshfield Farm ice-cream.” There is also the choice of “soups, sandwiches, Cornish pasties and sweet treats, as well as hot and cold drinks.” (https://www.english-heritage.org.uk/visit/places/stonehenge/things-to-do/)

Stakeholders- From information sourced from a stakeholder’s survey I have found that Respondents felt that English Heritage’s key roles are:
• Protecting the historic environment (9.2 average on a scale of 1 to 10 when asked the importance of each role)
• Being experts in protecting the historic environment (9.2)
• Providing advice on methods of conservation of the historic environment (9.1) • Supporting the heritage sector (9.1)
• Ensuring that heritage issues influence strategy and decisions at a local, sub-regional or national level (9.1).
Since 2009 the greatest change has been in the proportion of respondents who state that the “protection of the historic environment” is extremely important (55% in 2012 compared to 44% in 2009) and “managing change in the historic environment” (43% compared to 28%). (https://content.historicengland.org.uk/content/docs/research/stakeholder-research-findings-2012.pdf )

Environmental responsibility- 70% of respondents to a stakeholders survey were familiar with the range of grants English Heritage offers to protect and promote investment in the historic environment. This is similar to 2009 (64%). The respondents were asked to assess the importance of each English Heritage grant for the protection of the historic environment. Respondents stated that the most important English Heritage grant was for “expert advice and emergency repairs to ensure that heritage at risk is not lost”. (Just under half of respondents rated this grant as most important). The least important grant was “funding for privately owned heritage at risk”, with 47% rating this grant as least important.

Ethical responsibility- English heritage is part of a charity they state that “As a registered charity, we are governed by a board of trustees who delegate day-to-day responsibility for the running of the organisation to a senior management team. Sir Tim Laurence is Chairman of the board of trustees and Kate Mavor is our Chief Executive.” They are also working on reducing pay gap between men and women by stating “Although we are happy that our top and middle levels of management are balanced from a gender perspective, we know we have to do more to create a better balance across the organisation as a whole. We don’t have an equal pay issue. People doing the same job are paid equally. But we need to make sure that every position is equally attractive and accessible to people, no matter what their gender. We will keep working with unions and staff to achieve this. We will look at recruitment, making sure that we do more to attract a diverse workforce especially for seasonal roles; and look at our internal communications, making sure that the opportunities for flexible working are clear to everyone.” ( https://www.english-heritage.org.uk/siteassets/home/about-us/our-people/eh-gender-pay-gap-report.pdf )

How does English Heritage interrelate with other component industries?

Chain of Distribution, Horizontal and Vertical Integration

The Chain of Distribution is a chart which explains where agents involved with the Travel and Tourism Industry are linked together through the Chain. The Chain of Distribution helps people to understand how horizontal and vertical integration works for example if a tour operator merges with another tour operator this is horizontal integration because they are on the same level as the Chain of Distribution but if the tour operator merges with a travel agent or a transport provider this would be vertically integrated because they are not on the same level.

Tour operators
Travel agents

Horizontal integration is where an organisation owns two or more companies, on the same level of the buying chain. The advantage of horizontal integration is that it can increase the company’s market share. The advantage of horizontal integration is that it can increase the company’s market share. A good example of this, when ”Go” a budget airline owned by British Airways was taken over by EasyJet. When the companies merged, EasyJet power branded this means that all the logos and names that Go used before where now the EasyJet name and logo. EasyJet has more market control, and this allowed them to say what the prices can be. The positive side of this integration is that EasyJet now has more customers flying with them and therefore can have more market space to promote themselves.

Vertical integration is when an organization own companies on two or more levels of the buying chain. Examples of this can be found within all of them that own an airline, travel agent and a tour operator. The companies have until recently, used different names for their travel agency, airlines and tour operators, but now they are power branding their companies so that customers can see who they are booking with. An example of this is TUI UK, which has rebranded its companies using the Thomson name.