5.1 Discussion & conclusion
In today’s world, specifically in the 21st century, the newly emerging problems are accompanied by newly emerging infectious illness. The alarming growth of population are making the developing countries like Bangladesh very much vulnerable towards the infectious food borne illness. Many challenges are added to food safety. According to the IOM (International Organization for Migration), food borne illness was at high priority. IOM said “The potential for foods to be involved in the emergence or re-emergence of microbial threats to health is high, in large part because there are many points at which food safety can be compromised.”
The research work executed presently was to search out the prevalence of enteric bacteria specially E. coli, Vibrio species, Aeromonas and Plesiomonas species from different types foods collected from different slum areas situated at Dhaka city, Bangladesh.
Five agar media that were utilized to interpose the targeted microorganisms, presence in the slum area food samples were: MacConkey, Tryptone Bile X-glucoronide (TBX) agar, Thiosulfate Citrate Bile Salt-sucrose (TCBS) agar, Brilliant Green Agar (BGA) and Xylose-Lysine Desoxycholate agar (XLD). for the identification and isolation of E. coli, MacConkey and TBX agar were used. Vibrio species isolation was being highly selective where TCBS Agar is concerned. XLD and BGA were used for isolation of Salmonella and Shigella species from food samples. In most of the cases there was growth in agar media. We didn’t find any growth in XLD and BGA agar media because of the absence of Salmonella and Shigella species in the food samples. Sometimes the reason of no growth may include the collection of hot food just after the cooking, thereby inhibiting growth of bacteria.

In this study 84 food samples were tested from different slum areas. From total 84 food samples, 74 (88.1%) samples were suspected to be contaminated with our targeted organisms (E coli, Vibrio species, and Aeromonas species). In total 84 samples, 10 (11.9%) samples were suspected to be contaminated with E coli, 69(82.1%) samples with Vibrio, 5(6%) Samples with Aeromonas species, no(0%) samples with Plesiomonas shigelloidesA study was conducted on Microbiological hazard identification and exposure assessment of food prepared and served in rural households of Lungwena, Malawi. Samples were collected from 6 villages in Lungwena, Malawi showing the presence of food-borne pathogens, Escherichia coli 0157:H7, Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella species, Campylobacter jejuni and non-pathogenic E. coli, in 132 home cooked food samples consisting of maize flour porridge (MFP), (n = 41), fish (n = 37), vegetables (n = 28), beans (n = 13) and “Others” (n = 13). It was found that 35% of the food samples were contaminated with one or more pathogens; with 48%, 8%, 61% and 23% of the food samples being found to harbour E. coli, pathogenic E. coli 0157: H7, S. aureus and Salmonella species, respectively. C. jejuni was not detected in any food sample. Practices that promote the spread of the pathogens in the rural household kitchens were investigated. Poor food handling, preparation and storage practices were recognized as the means of the contamination of the food samples.

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A study assessing Identification of microbiological hazards and safety of ready-to-eat food vended in streets of Amravati City, India showed that there are reports of food borne illnesses associated with the consumption of street vended foods in several places in India. A rapid review of street vended food was undertaken to assess its safety for human consumption and as potential sources of bacterial pathogens. A total of 55 samples were analyzed. The bacterial pathogens identified were P. aeruginosa (39%), E.coli (21%), S. aureus (16%), Salmonella sp. (12%) and Proteus sp. (12%). The highest frequencies of occurrence of bacterial pathogens were P. aeruginosa in samosa (25%), E. coli in kachori (32%), S. aureus in kachori (27%). Poor water quality and hygiene during food preparation, washing of utensils, poor personal and domestic hygiene, peeling of fruits long before consumption, and crowded, dusty and poorly maintained shopping areas were the main reasons for the deterioration of foods in that city area. The location of shops alongside busy roads with heavy vehicular traffic, which increase airborne particles, or beside waste disposal sites and over crowded dwellings, adds to the contamination. These findings demonstrate that the ready-to-eat food vended in Amravati City constitute an important potential hazard to human health. Provision of health education to the vendors and enforcing implementation of appropriate hygienic practices would improve food quality.

A study was conducted on 80 schools from 19 school zones of Dhaka city for the assessment of microbial quality of selected street food items vended by school-based street food vendors. This study estimates unacceptable range of microbial contamination in 54% of sliced fruits samples, 59% of jhalmuri samples, 29% of chotpotis samples, 53% of vajavuji samples, and all (100%) sharbat samples. Most of the food venders were aged between 15-24 years old and educated below primary level. The emergence of food borne illness due to the low of quality of street foods was a threat of health for the school going children in Dhaka city. The lack of sense of hygiene, proper knowledge and low income (approximately 200taka/day or 3.00 USD/day) of vendors might be reason behind the contamination of foods.

In developing country like Bangladesh, slum dwellers are deprived of quality of life. Education can play vital role in influencing parent’s knowledge about nutrition, hygiene and health. Sometimes respondents are found to be conscious about food habit but can’t afford healthy food which is expensive to them. As slum dwellers do not own any land and stay in public and private land, so they fail to grow food in their own land. Consequently, they aremostly dependent on market price of food. However, market price fluctuates without considering their ability to buy. So this state of price fluctuations has to be given priority in caseof household level to make them food secure. Moreover, The WHO recommends governments put in place risk-based food control systems and implement international food safety standards as established by the Codex Alimentarius Commission. Food handlers and consumers should handle and prepare food safely, practicing the WHO’s ‘Five Keys to Safer Food’ and grow fruits and vegetables using the WHO’s ‘Five Keys to Growing Safer Fruits and Vegetables’ to decrease microbial contamination.
The present study findings reflected that the microbiological quality of a considerable number of the slum area based foods was found to be unsatisfactory indicating a public health threat to Dhaka City. A regular inspection visit by inspectors from Government and Dhaka City Corporation (DCC) and/or the health department to the slum areas should be initiated immediately to improve the overall quality of foods. Education and training of slum dwellers can improve their food handling practices, and might be the most cost-effective way to reduce the incidence of food borne diseases. Relevant national and international authorities should come forward to ensure food safety in an equivalent manner throughout the slum areas as soon as it requires.


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