4

4.1 Introduction
This chapter aims to analyze and discuss the results of the students’ test and the English language teachers’ questionnaire. There the writer made a description about the data gathered which focused on the students’ error in using punctuation marks in writing. After that, the researcher presented the analysis of students’ errors. Eventually, presented the results of the error analysis the researcher had done.

4.1 Analysis of Pre-test and post-test marks

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Table 4.1
Overall scores of students pre-test and post-test marks
Pre-test Post-test
Overall pre-test results Overall post-test results
Punctuation marks Overall Mean Punctuation marks Overall Mean
Comma 285 5.7 Comma 430 8.6
Full stop 294 5.88 Full stop 435 8.7
Colon 210 4.2 Colon 399 7.98
Question mark 318 6.36 Question mark 402 8.04
Apostrophe 315 6.3 Apostrophe 451 9.02
Semi colon 156 3.12 Semi colon 416 8.32

The table above shows the overall results in the pre-test and post-test of the students. Their results are as follows: pre test: Full stop 294,Comma 285, Colon 210, and Semi-colon156 apostrophe 315 question mark 318 post-test reads thus Full stop 435,Comma 430, Colon 399, and Semi-colon 416 apostrophe 451 question mark 402.
The above chart clearly shows the difference between pre-test marks and post-test marks. There the students have increase their knowledge applying punctuation marks. Specially, they have learnt to apply semi colon mark very well. Because the entire students have got 156 total marks when applying semi colon in their pre-test. However, they were able to decrease their mistake and gained 416 marks for the post-test. There the difference is 260. It is a considerable different in compare with pre-test and post-test marks. Most of the students have knowledge applying question marks. In the above table, students have got 318 total marks for the pre-test and 402 marks for the post-test. There, the different is less. Because many students have gained good results even for the pre-test.it means they have fair knowledge when applying question mark. However, in comparison with pre-test and post-test marks students gave students have increase their knowledge when applying other punctuation marks; comma, full stop, colon and apostrophe.

Table 4.2

Chart4.2

The table above show the students’ individual marks on pre-test and post test. It clearly shows the students individual marks on each punctuation marks; comma, full stop, colon, question mark, apostrophe and semi colon. According to the table many students have made errors when applying semi colon in pre-test. There, the total is 156. However, after receiving the instruction on particular lesson, students have increased their knowledge. As a result of that all the students have gained 416 total marks in their post-test. Students have had fair knowledge applying question mark and apostrophe. That is why they have gained totally 318 for question mark and 315 for apostrophe in the pre-test and for the post test student have got marks 402 for question mark and 451 for apostrophe. This is a considerable development applying punctuation marks. As well as, for the pre test students have got 285 total marks for comma, 294 total marks for full stop and 210 total marks for colon. In comparison with the post test results there is a different between pre test and post test marks. Because they have increased the knowledge applying there punctuation marks. The post test results were 430 for comma, 435 for full stop and 399 for colon.

Diagram 4.1
Data analysis of Pre-test

For the pre-test only one student had got marks between 80-100, 15 students had got marks between 60-79, 28 students had got marks between 40-59, 4 students had got marks between 20-39 and 2 students had got less than 20 marks. However, most of them were able to get more than 40 and less than 59 marks. Normally, many students gave got total marks between 40-59. This means students’ knowledge is average when applying punctuation marks.

Diagram 4.2
Post Test Data

For the post-test, 39 students had got marks between 80-100 and 11 students had got marks between 60-79. The important thing was there is no any student who had got less than 59 marks for the post test. This clearly shows the students’ improvement in using punctuation marks in their writing. The other important thing is only less number of students had got less than 79 and all the other had got more than 80 marks. This clearly shows the teacher has given clear instruction on punctuation marks and also students have understood it clearly. As a result of that students were able to decrease their errors when applying punctuation marks.

Table 4.3

Table 4.3

The table above shows the students’ individual errors on pre-test and post test. It clearly shows the students individual errors on each punctuation marks; comma, full stop, colon, question mark, apostrophe and semi colon. According to the table many students have made errors when applying semi colon in pre-test. There the students committed errors in semi colon with the total number of 344 , 214 errors occurred in comma, 205 errors occurred in full stop, 288 errors occurred in colon ,182 errors occurred in question mark, 185 errors occurred in apostrophe. The total number of students’ errors in that punctuation rules were 2363 errors. However in comparison with the pre test errors students were able to reduce their errors in their post test. There, students committed errors in semi colon with the total number of 83 , 70 errors occurred in comma, 65 errors occurred in full stop, 101 errors occurred in colon ,98 errors occurred in question mark, 56 errors occurred in apostrophe.
In comparison with pre test and post test errors students were able to decrease their marks and increase their errors.

4.2 Analysis of Pre-test and post-test errors
Table 4.4
Overall scores of students pre-test and post-test errors
Pre-test Post-test
Overall pre-test results Overall post-test results
Punctuation marks Overall Mean Punctuation marks Overall Mean
Comma 214 4.28 Comma 70 1.4
Full stop 205 4.1 Full stop 65 1.3
Colon 288 5.76 Colon 101 2.02
Question mark 182 3.64 Question mark 98 1.96
Apostrophe 185 3.7 Apostrophe 56 1.12
Semi colon 344 6.88 Semi colon 83 1.66

The table above shows the overall errors in the pre-test and post-test of the students. Their errors are as follows: pre test: Full stop 205,Comma 285, Colon 288, and Semi-colon 344 apostrophe 185 question mark 182 post-test reads thus Full stop 65,Comma 70, Colon 101, and Semi-colon 83 apostrophe 56 question mark 98.
Thus the above chart clearly depicts the difference between pre-test errors and post-test errors. There the students of DCS-Galle were able to decrease their errors. Specially, they have learnt to apply semi colon mark very well. Because the entire students had made 344 errors when applying semi colon in their pre-test. However, they were able to decrease their mistake and made 83 marks for the post-test. There the difference is 261. It is a considerable different in compare with pre-test and post-test marks. Most of the students have knowledge applying question marks. In the above table, students have made 182 errors for the pre-test and 98 errors for the post-test. There, the different is less. Because many students have gained good results even for the pre-test.it means they have fair knowledge when applying question mark. However, in comparison with pre-test and post-test marks students have increase their knowledge when applying other punctuation marks; comma, full stop, colon and apostrophe.

Diagram 4.3
Students’ Pre test and Post test Errors in using Punctuation marks.

This chart represents the pre test and post test error analysis made by the students of DCS. There, pre test errors have shown in blue colour line and post test errors have shown in red colour. The chart is shown that the most frequent error in which the students committed when using punctuation in writing. In view of pre test errors occurred semi colon with the total number of 344 errors, 214 errors occurred in comma, 205 errors occurred in full stop, 288 errors occurred in colon, 182 errors occurred in question mark, 185 errors occurred in apostrophe. In view of post test errors, occurred semi colon with the total number of 83 errors, 70 errors occurred in comma, 65 errors occurred in full stop, 101 errors occurred in colon, 98 errors occurred in question mark, 56 errors occurred in apostrophe.
There is a considerable difference between pre test and post test error analysis. There, all the students had made 214 errors when applying comma in their pre-test and 70 errors in post-test. This means, the students were able to decrease their knowledge of using comma. The students had made 205 errors when applying full stop in pre-test and they have made 65 errors in their post test. The difference is 140. This shows the significant changed regarding students’ knowledge of applying full stop. There were 288 errors in pre-test and 101 errors in post-test when the students were applying punctuation mark of colon. It is a considerable changed and they had improved the use of knowledge of colon. The sample had made 182 errors when applying question marks in their pre-test and there were 98 errors in post-test. The difference is 84. There were 185 errors applying apostrophe and 56 errors in post test.
This clearly depicts that student had gain fair knowledge on punctuation marks after giving the instructions. In this research, students had done considerable amount of errors when using semi colon in their post test. However, they have increased their knowledge after they learnt the rules.

4.3 Analysis of Teachers questionnaires

Questionnaires for English Teachers

The analysis of questionnaires for English teachers is divided in to two parts. There are open-ended questions for part one and questions with liquor scale had given for the part two.
In part one, the researcher has asked in which grade do the teachers introduce punctuation for that question, most of the teachers had given the answer as grade three and they have highlighted the full stop as the very first punctuation mark that they taught. However, teachers have shown that they do not use colon, semi colon and hyphen in their normal day to day work. But they have told that punctuation marks such as full stop, comma, semi colon, colon, apostrophe, question mark and inverted comma are essential punctuation marks.

Chart 4.4 Table 4.5
Teacher questionnaires 01

Frequency Percent Valid Percent Cumulative Percent
Valid 1.00 2 20.0 20.0 20.0
2.00 5 50.0 50.0 70.0
3.00 3 30.0 30.0 100.0
Total 10 100.0 100.0

In the teacher questionnaire the research had inquired whether the teacher explains punctuation marks while teaching reading comprehension texts. The above chart clearly depicts that the most of the teachers had mentioned the answer “sometimes”. It means they always do not explain the punctuation marks while teaching reading comprehension texts. Therefore, students are not familiar with the punctuation marks, because they need to practice. Students may remember them with the appropriate practice.

Chart 4.5 Table 4.6
Teacher questionnaires 06

Q6
Frequency Percent Valid Percent Cumulative Percent
Valid 1.00 5 50.0 50.0 50.0
2.00 2 20.0 20.0 70.0
3.00 3 30.0 30.0 100.0
Total 10 100.0 100.0

The above diagram shows whether the teachers always teach students punctuation marks based on their mistakes they make in writing. According to the answers mention in the questionnaire always some of the teachers in the school consider the students errors when applying punctuation marks. However, some of the teachers had considered the errors sometimes. It is most important that the teachers should consider the students errors whether it is a grammar lesson or any other lesson. As a result of that students may develop their knowledge of punctuation marks.

Chart 4.6 Table 4.7
Teacher questionnaires 07

Q7
Frequency Percent Valid Percent Cumulative Percent
Valid 1.00 5 50.0 50.0 50.0
2.00 3 30.0 30.0 80.0
3.00 1 10.0 10.0 90.0
4.00 1 10.0 10.0 100.0
Total 10 100.0 100.0

Question number seven inquires whether the teachers motivate students to do some works on punctuation marks. Out of ten, only five teacher always motivate their students to do some works on punctuation marks. This is one of the most important things, because students should get practice every now and then to have knowledge to apply punctuation marks. Some of the teacher motivated the students often and some are very rarely. If the teachers motivate the students to practice, the results will be definitely changed.

Chart 4.7 Table 4.8
Teacher questionnaires 09

Q9
Frequency Percent Valid Percent Cumulative Percent
Valid 1.00 4 40.0 40.0 40.0
2.00 6 60.0 60.0 100.0
Total 10 100.0 100.0

Question number nine in the questionnaires, the researcher had inquired whether the teachers teach students punctuation marks through exercises in the syllabus. For this question, most of the teachers had given the answer sometimes. Therefore, sometimes teachers may not teach punctuation marks through exercises. That is why student have a poor knowledge regarding punctuation mark, because practice is very important. Without proper practice, they cannot gain the knowledge.

In comparison with above details, the research can say that the reasons for the students’ lack of knowledge of punctuation marks is insufficient practice, less error correction by teacher and lack of new teaching methods.

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