Descartes had a goal to break traditions and create a new philosophy transition and find a stable lasting and impossible to doubt knowledge.What he did to employ to get there was with hyperbolic skepticism.
The argument that from deception is that if our sense has misled us before than they might be deceiving us right now as well. The argument for dreaming represent the nature of dreaming is that we can never know what we are dreaming is what we are experiencing represent reality or not. If we can not be for sure certain that what we are dreaming then we might be dreaming right now.
The point of his argument was it was possible that god might have deceived him when he is counting even when the answer seems cleary.
The reasons that support this conclusion are that all our beliefs about outside reality may be false because there is consistently a possibility that an evil demon is consistently working to deceive us about what could be real.
How he builds to his conclusion seems to remain the reason that to be convinced or deceived of something you have to exist. Even if he himself assumes that there is a deceiver.
He comes to the conclusion that by saying that the only indisputable knowledge is that he is thinking because it must exist of it is him who fools himself.
That he knows that physical objects are not by sense or having a mental image by understanding it alone. He comes to this coulsion by stating the way that you hold piece of wax or any physical object disconnects better to reveal the nature of his mind.
Examples of each of the three kinds of the ideas are in senses, ideas formed by help from memory and imagination, and ideas perceived by attending to the passion and operations of the mind. The examples are the sight of lights and color like a bright pink light. Name of a certain taste like the memory of a sour candy. The name of things like apple which are pleasing or not agreeable excite of the passion of joy.
The difference between ideas and the mind remain an idea is consistent of being perceived and mind is that they should accept existence out of the mind or thinking thing that perceive them.
Because they do not exist without the mind or in the truth that there should be anything such a an object.
Berkeley would answer that yes the tree would make a sound even if there was no one there to hear because God is everywhere and he would be able to detect it.
Berkeley rejected the distinction between primary and secondary qualities because they can not maintain existence without the mind.
The two categories that it can be divided are impressions and thoughts or ideas. How they distinguished from one another is that impressions are lively perceptions when we recognize what we hear, see, and feel. An example is the color black and sadness. Thoughts and ideas are based on less lively perception that are from memory or imagination. An example of this is the thought of being sad.
David Hume suggests we know about the unobserved thing through the process of cause and effect and that we can go beyond the evidence of our memory and senses. From his knowledge that his friend is in France might be caused by a letter to that an effect.And his knowledge is that that sun will rise tomorrow from a past experience which informs him that sun has risen is past as well. He concludes that our own knowledge of cause and effect must be based on past experience that has happened. From looking at the phenomena in the future.
Because it’s not a statement related to the relation of an idea but as a matter as fact. Deductive reasoning applies as the past and not most recent.
We can’t prove the principle is that moral reasoning is unhelpful, since it fall into a circle. That if all our predictions about the future are based in “the future will resemble the past” and means that the principle is taken from previous experiences. We cannot grasp it will be true in the future expect by assuming the principle from the start.