2.2 Analyse how children and young people’s development is influenced by a range of external factors.
As mention in 1.1 there are many factors that can influence a child’s development
• General Health
• Genes
• Environment
• Attachment issues (lack of a care giver or neglect)
• Nutrition
• Culture
• Disability
This can either be personal which will immediately affect the child, or external which are factors that can contribute to a child’s development whether it be good or bad
Personal to the Child
Health: this can start early as when a mother is carrying the child and is drinking excessively or taking drug, or not getting enough nutrients into their body to help support and grow a healthy child, this can affect how the child’s brain develops as well as physical features. This can then affect when they are born as then can go through withdrawal symptoms rom drugs or alcohol abuse and this can affect cognitive ability and physical disabilities in later life after birth.
other health problems could be having a low immune system which affects how much they get ill, asthma, cystic fibrosis, diabetes and many other health problems and in so may be unable to attend school or any sporting activities and playing with other children to help in their development. And by missing school may miss out on the opportunity to learn new skills as well as interact and play with other children’s learning new social skills.
Disability: With physical disabilities, it can affect their social, emotional, physical and mental / intellectual development this can be wide ranging from physical to mental disabilities and can be classified as congenital or acquired. Congenital is when a child has these disabilities when they are born or acquired if they get this through injury or disease after they are born. with physical it can be unable to walk or have use of other limbs, be blind or partiality blind, hearing difficulties or hearing loss or many others but these will impact on how a child is able to go about their daily lives and can affect how they learn and be treated by other people around them. Or mental can be ADHD, anxiety, depression these again can affect how they learn and will have an impact on how they develop and the rate they develop at.
Learning difficulties: This will affect how they will be able to learn new skill, also how they understand information as well as being able to communicate with other will be impaired. Learning difficulties such as APD Auditory processing disorder, Dyslexia, dyscalculia, dysgraphia can all affect how a child learning and depending on the disorder can have a major impact on their learning, but if diagnosed earlier enough preventative measure and new learning techniques can be put in place to help.
External factors:
Environment: this can play a major role in that there are many factors, it could be that the family live in poverty which studies show that people from low income houses / poor families will less likely to do well in school, this could be due to lack of amenities such as books or internet this may impact their learning compared to other, low income families wont be able to be fresh food or have good nutrition and this can impact how a child develops physically as they wont get the nutrition or also be able to heat a house and be warm as this can cause illness.
Parents: Parents will have a big impact on a child’s development, as in the early months of being born if a child suffers with neglect or does not have a primary care giver such as the mother, studies have shown that this can affect the brain and In later life can affect the cognitive and also behavioural behaviours of children. A child will learn through play as well as being cared for but if for some reason parents neglect to interact or play with their child this will affect how they learn, or physical growth due to nutrition. A parent may neglect due to may reasons such as drugs and alcohol abuse, low income as well, due to unemployed due to redundancy as this will affect the parents in how they provide care and give the child the care and attention they need to flourish.
Culture: A child may be born into a family that have certain religious or different ethnic group to other people in their area, this can impact a child’s development if they are subject to bullying, abuse, racial abuse, because of their background and ethnicity and will affect how they will interact with other people and can cause them to have low self-esteem or social problems as well as the parents having a affect on what they eat and learn depending on their religion and the child may not want to be part of this so may end up isolated from their family and friends. Language could also be a barrier as some families speak different languages, so the child may be unable to interact with anyone apart from their families due to this and will affect their learning.