15047462800 Prince Mohammad Bin Fahd University Section

15047462800
Prince Mohammad Bin Fahd University
Section: 201
GEIT3331_201_1910: Computer Organization_201
Name: Aqeela Zuhair Aloraidh ID# 201401820
Name: ID#
Name: ID#
Name: ID#
Report: Latest Memory Technology
The latest memory technology
Introduction:
Memory is the faculty of the brain by which information is encoded, stored, and retrieved when needed. Memory is a major component of any data processing. Flash memory is not the only memory type for storage data. There are many of emerging memory technologies such as Phase Change Memory (PCM)
PCM:
Phase Change Memory is a form of non-volatile Random-Access Memory (RAM) that store data by changing the material used, which means it change really fast back and forth between amorphous and crystalline states on a microscopic level. In fact, in the amorphous state the material in PCM memory has high electrical resistance. However, in the crystalline state PCM has less resistance. That will allow electrical current to be turned on and off to represent digital high and low states. There are many well-known organizations such as, Intel, Samsung and IBM do researches into PCM technology. In the past PCM had limited capacity and high cost, we can only store one 1 bit per cell. Which makes it less useful for main memory devices such as, laptop or mobile phone storage and other. Know, IBM researches has reached how to store 3 bit per cell by tinkering with how the crystals react to high temperatures, which are required to tap into multiple states for PCM cells. “Reaching 3 bits per cell is a significant milestone because at this density the cost of PCM will be significantly less than DRAM and closer to flash,” says Dr. Haris Pozidis from IBM Research. Know PCM as one of the latest me memory technology because it offers cost-effective, high-volume and high-density nonvolatile storage on an unparalleled scale. People sometime called PCM as “Perfect RAM” (PRAM) because data can be written multiple time without having to erase an entire block of cell first. IBM believes that PCM is more useful than any other memory technology, and they believe it is a perfect storage medium for artificial intelligence applications that resemble Watson. PCM cell selectors can use various devices such as, diodes, BJTs and MOSFETs.

PCM vs. Flash:
Phase Change Memory (PCM) is one of several memory technologies that contend to replace flash memory. Because of PCM physical structure is three-dimension, number of transistors that can exist in a fix size chip can be maximized, making it possible for PCM to operate and function 500 to 1,000 much faster than flash memory, while using less power. Comparing PCM with flash memory, flash memory can resist about 3,000 write cycles, however; PCM can resist up to 10,000 write cycles.
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Also, flash memory degrades with each burst of voltage, PCM devices also degrade, but at a much slower rate. However, the lifetime of PCM is limited by a tree-like data structure called generalized suffix tree, thermal expansion during programming, metal migration and other mechanisms still unknown. Because flash memory devices restrict electrons to store information, they are liable to data corruption from radiation, which make them unsuitable for a lot of space and military applications. On the other hand, PCM have higher resistance to radiation.

https://nanoheat.stanford.edu/projects/phase-change-memory-and-electrothermal-transport-chalcogenides