? SAMPLING TECHNIQUE:
Purposive sampling technique has been applied for all levels of sampling and data collection.
? SAMPLE SELECTION CRITERIA:
? It is not possible to collect data from all the members of a population and the investigator resorted to sampling technique. Sampling implies any portion of a population or universe taken as representative of that population or universe. Sample selection is a very important technique in doing any kind of research but sometimes it is underestimated as a part of a research study. Sampling theory describes two sampling domains: probability and non-probability. Probability samples contain some type of randomization and consist of simple, stratified, systematic, cluster, and sequential types. Non-probability samples lack randomization and consist of convenience or accidental, purposive, quota, volunteer, and expert types. The primary distinction between the two domains is that the probability sampling study findings can be generalized to the target population while the non-probability sampling study findings can only be generalized to the institution where the sample was studied.
Sample Selection criteria have been mentioned below:
• AGE LIMIT: There is no age limit for the three categories.
• GENDER: For gender, sample of male and female both has been considered.
• OCCUPATION: The selection of entire sample was workers either in Government sector or non-government or private sectors and students. Non-employed persons have also been considered.
• RESIDENCE: Sample has been collected from the Agartala, Udaipur and hospital with psychiatric setup along with de-addiction centre in Agartala, Tripura. i.e., MODERN PSYCHIATRIC HOSPITAL, NARSINGARH.
• EDUCATIONAL QUALIFICATION: Graduates and above (degree holder) have been considered.
• SOCIO-ECONOMIC BACKGROUND: Entire sample is selected from Upper Middle Class family, Middle Class family and Lower Class family.
Following table showing the short summary of sample:-
The primary focus of the current research is to estimate the significance level of variation in average score for emotional intelligence and personality between normal individuals, schizophrenics and cannabis addicts.
The definition of EMOTIONAL INTELLIGENCE and PERSONALITY are given below for illustrative purpose.
• EMOTIONAL INTELLIGENCE:
Emotional Intelligence is the knowledge of other’s emotions/knowledge of one’s own emotions. (Sattler, 2001; Pfieffer 2001).
According to Salovey and Mayer, Emotional Intelligence is the “the ability or tendency to perceive, understand, regulate, and harness emotions adaptively in the self and in others.”(Schutte, et al. 2001 pg.1)
Emotional Intelligence is the emotions aiding judgement and memory” and conceptualizing EI as a trait and an ability. (Schutte, 2001 pg.1)
“Personality refers to deeply ingrained patterns of behavior, which include the way one relates to, perceives and thinks about the environment and one self.” – American Psychiatric Association-1987
? OPERATIONAL DEFINITION OF SAMPLE:
The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders: 4th edition-text revision (DSM-IV-TR) defines schizophrenia as a disorder of thinking, volition, and affect (American Psychiatric Association, (APA), 2000).
Schizophrenia is a chronic and severe mental disorder that affects how a person thinks, feels, and behaves. People with schizophrenia may seem like they have lost touch with reality. Although schizophrenia is not as common as other mental disorders, the symptoms can be very disabling. (National Institute Of Mental Health, 2016)
CANNABIS ADDICTION: Cannabis (Marijuana) use can lead to the development of problem use, known as a Cannabis (marijuana) use disorder, which takes the form of addiction in severe cases. Recent data suggest that 30 percent of those who use Cannabis (marijuana) may have some degree of Cannabis (marijuana) use disorder.18 People who begin using Cannabis (marijuana) before the age of 18 are four to seven times more likely to develop a Cannabis (marijuana) use disorder than adults. (National Institute on Drug Abuse, 2018, feb)
? RESEARCH VARIABLES: The research variables, of any scientific experiment or research process, are factors that can be manipulated and measured. Martyn Shuttleworth (Aug 9, 2008)
1. DEMOGRAPHIC VARIABLES:
• Major Medical Illness
• Present psychiatric illness
• Past psychiatric illness
2. VARIABLES UNDER THE STUDY:
Following variables under the study in research are:
A) Independent Variable: – An independent variable is a variable believed to affect the dependent variable.
1. Normal individuals
3. Cannabis addicts
B) Dependent Variable: – The dependent variable is the variable a researcher is interested in.
1. Emotional Intelligence Score
2. Personality Score
? MEASURING TOOLS USED:
In the current study, the following three tools have been used for conducting this research and among them two scales have been used to estimate the emotional intelligence level and personality type of Normal individuals, Schizophrenics, Cannabis addicts.
1) THE SOCIO DEMOGRAPHIC DATA SHEET:
The term “socio-demographic” refers to a group defined by its sociological and demographic characteristics. Socio-demographic groups are used for analyses in the social sciences as well as for marketing and medical studies. Demographic characteristics can refer to age, sex, place of residence, religion, educational level and marital status. Sociological characteristics are more objective traits, such as membership in organizations, household status, interests, values and social groups. A group based on both sociological and demographic traits, such as people under 30 years of age who are interested in environmentalism, is an example of a socio-demographic group. Studies that divide people into groups by education, relative income, ethnicity and gender are considered socio-demographic studies.
While designing a survey or research it is very important to assess who to survey and how to breakdown overall survey response data into meaningful groups of respondents. Both assessments are based on demographic considerations.
The datasheet provides detailed information on the composition of the population. It was also used to differentiate between different groups in the population as this segmentation offers insight that would have been missed by only looking at the aggregate data.
The socio-demographic data used in this research are name, age, gender, residence, Occupation, Education, Major Medical Illness, Present psychiatric illness, Past psychiatric illness
2) WONG AND LAW EMOTIONAL INTELLIGENCE SCALE – (WLEIS):
The Wong and Law Emotional Intelligence Scale – (WLEIS; Law et al., 2004; Wong and Law, 2002), was used to measure the level of Emotional Intelligence (EI) among normal individuals, schizophrenics and cannabis addicts.
? DEVELOPER: – The Wong and Law Emotional Intelligence Scale was developed by Law et al., in 2004 and Wong and Law in 2002.
? DESCRIPTION OF THE SCALE: -This Wong and Law Emotional Intelligence Scale have been used to measure emotional intelligence. This self-report scale has been for five main reasons. First, the WLEIS is consistent with Mayer and Salovey’s de_nition of EI (Mayer and Salovey, 1997) and is based on the ability model presented by these scholars. Second, recent studies have tested and retested this scale in different cultures (Law et al., 2008; Law et al., 2004; Shi and Wang, 2007) and different ethnic and gender groups (Whitman et al., 2011), and established it as a solid measure with sound validity and reliability. Third, unlike other self-report EI scales that have been criticized for not being conceptually different from measures of personality, the WLEIS has been found to be distinct from the Big Five personality model (Law et al., 2004). Fourth, this parsimonious 16-item scale was specifically developed for the use in organizations (Law et al., 2004; Wong and Law, 2002). Last, in a recent study (Law et al., 2008) the WLEIS was found to be a better predictor of objective job performance compared to the performance-based emotional intelligence test, MSCEIT (Mayer et al., 2000).
Key Dimensions Measured:
WEIS is a scale based on the four ability dimensions described in the domain of EI:
(1) Appraisal and expression of emotion in the self/ Self-Emotion Appraisal (SEA),
(2) appraisal and recognition of emotion in others/ Others’ Emotion Appraisal (OEA),
(3) regulation of emotion in the self / Use of Emotion (UOE),
(4) use of emotion to facilitate performance/ Regulation of Emotion (ROE).
Sample items for this measure are: (1) “I have a good sense of why I have certain feelings most of the time”; (2) “I always know my friends’ emotions from their behavior”; (3) “I always set goals for myself and then try my best to achieve them”; and (4) “I am able to control my temper so that I can handle dif_culties rationally”.
? LENGTH OF TEST: 5-10 Minutes
? SCORING: – Wong and Law (2002) selected a total of 16 items, four per dimension. The four scales of measure are: Self-Emotion Appraisal (SEA), Others’ Emotion Appraisal (OEA), Use of Emotion (UOE), and Regulation of Emotion (ROE). All items are positively keyed; and this poses as a weakness of the measure. There is no reverse scoring for any of the items. A sample item from SEA is “I have a good sense of why I have certain feelings most of the time.” A sample item from OEA is “I always know my friend’s emotions from their behavior.” “I always set goals for myself and then try my best to achieve them” and “I have good control of my own emotions” are items from UOE and ROE respectively.
The items on the measure are self-rated on a 5- point Likert-type scale i.e,
1 = strongly disagree
3=neither agree nor disagree