1 CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION 1

1

CHAPTER 1

INTRODUCTION

1.1 BACKGROUND

Our modern society is becoming increasingly dependent on software, due to this
the size and complexity of computer software has grown at a very high peak. Dependency
and requirements on computer software increases the difficulties and failures of software
and the often-devastating effect that a software error can have in terms of life, financial
loss, or time delays. So the demand of quality software continues to increase. Software
quality is not an advantage but a necessary factor for software industry 1, 2. Software
design is the more creative and highly significant phase in software development process.
Software design can play the role to control and improve the software quality. The quality
of software design affects the quality of final product. Considering the fact that
inefficiencies in software design account for the maximum errors thereby contributing to
maintenance costs, it is only wise to isolate the errors as early as possible in the design
phase to eliminate ripple costs 1, 3. Assessment of software product quality throughout
the development life cycle is very important to manage and improve the software quality.
Assessment of software quality after the completion of development work is no longer an
advantage but it is more important to monitor and manage the quality of software when it
is under development 5. Thus, there appeared to be need for identifying the design
constructs, which may be used in early stage of development to give good indication of
software quality. In order to provide the significant assessment of software product
quality, it is required to identify a set of high-level desirable quality attributes, and to find
a way to relate the design constructs to quality attributes, significantly. In this regard a bit
effort has been made in this paper.
In a marketplace of highly competitive products, the importance of delivering quality
software is no longer an advantage but a necessary factor for software companies to be
successful. It is widely accepted in software engineering that the quality of a software
system should be assured from the initial phases of its life cycle. Quality assurance
methods are most effective when they are applied at initial phases and least effective when

2

the system is already implemented. As Boehm Boehm81 remarks, problems in the
artifacts produced in the initial stages of software system development generally propagate
to artifacts produced in later stages, where they become more costly to identify and
correct.
Quality is a vague and multifaceted concept, which means each type of customers, may
have their own conception of quality. The assessment of quality is a matter of perception.
Quality must be defined and measured to achieve the improvement in the product, that
product can meet the client’s needs and expectations 1.
Quality in software products is characterized by the presence of different external
attributes such as functionality, effectiveness, usability, efficiency, Effectiveness and
portability ISO 9001. But these attributes can only be measured late in the OO software
development life cycle. Therefore, it is necessary to find early indicators of such qualities
based.

1.2 OBJECT ORIENTED CONSTRUCTS

The object-oriented construct is more popular in software development
environment in recent years. More and more organizations are introducing object oriented
methods and languages into their software development practices. Object Oriented
Software Methodology is a way of structuring software as a collection of discrete objects
reflecting real-world entities and mapping them into design constructs to represent
relationships and functionality efficiently. It reflects a natural view of the domain and
handles inherent complexity better. Object oriented approach offers potential benefits over
traditional software development methods. The application of object oriented technology
to systems development has brought many advantages and benefits as well as new
challenging issues. The object-oriented technology is more powerful to design the
software in order to provide the product of superior quality. The adoption of the object-
oriented approach is expected to produce better and cheaper software 1. Three important
concepts differentiate the object-oriented approach from conventional software
engineering: Encapsulation, Inheritance ; Polymorphism 1.

3

1.3 DESIGN CONSTRUCTS THAT INFLUENCES QUALITY

In order to design the software by an object oriented approach, the three
fundamental constructs are significantly being used i.e. encapsulation, inheritance and
polymorphism. Encapsulation is the mechanism to hide the internal specification of an
object and shows only the external interface. This means that all that is seen of an object is
its interface, namely the operations we can perform on the object. Information hiding is
the process of hiding all the information about the module unless it is specifically declared
publicly”. Information hiding gives rise to encapsulation in object oriented language 1.

Inheritance is an approach where an object acquires the characteristics from another object
by sharing of attributes and operations among classes through their hierarchical
relationship 4.The new classes of objects that inherit much of their behavior from
previously defined classes. Inheritance is a form of reuse that enable a process of
development to define objects incrementally by reusing previously defined objects as the
basis for new objects 5.
Polymorphism is an important concept that has a capability to build a flexible system.
Polymorphism means, the ability to have several forms, which is to carry out different
processing steps by the operations having same messages. Polymorphism allows the
implementation of given operations, which are dependent on the object that contains the
operations; an operation can be implemented in different ways in different classes 6, 7.
The two more, most important design which the methods in a class are related to each
other.The internal consistency occurs within the parts of the design, and it is focused on
data that is encapsulated within an object and how the methods communicate with data
to provide well bounded behaviour 8.

4

Design Parameters
Cohesion

Coupling

Encapsulation

Inheritance

Abstraction

Author/Study

MC Gregor et al. (1996) ?= ?=

Bruce & Shi (1998) ?= ?=

B. Pettichord (2002) ?=

Baudry et al.( 2002) ?=

M Bruntik (2004) ?==
======
S.Mouchawrab (2005F=?=?= ?=

I. Ahson et al. (2007) ?=?=?=?=

Nazir et al. (205) ?=?=?=?=

Suhel et al. ( (2012) ?=?=?=?=?=
======
Khan et al. (2012)=?=?=?=?=

Nikfard &Babak (2013) ?=?=?=

Table 1.1:Object Oriented Design Constructs Contributing in Effectiveness Implication at
design phase

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1.4 SOFTWARE QUALITY ATTRIBUTES

Over the past two decades, software quality attributes have been broadly
studied. Assessment of software product quality throughout the development life
cycle is very important to manage and improve the software quality. Assessment
of software quality after the completion of development work is no longer an
advantage but it is more important to monitor and manage the quality of software
when it is under development 17, 19. Thus, there appeared to be need for
identifying the design constructs, which may be used in early stage of
development to give good indication of software quality. In order to provide the
significant assessment of software product quality, it is required to identify a set
of high-level desirable quality attributes, and to find a way to relate the design
constructs to quality attributes, significantly. In this regard a bit effort has been
made in this chapter.
Quality assurance methods are most effective when they are applied at
initial phases and least effective when the system is already implemented. In a
marketplace of highly competitive products, the importance of delivering quality
software is no longer an advantage but a necessary factor for software companies
to be successful. It is widely accepted in software engineering that the quality of a
software system should be assured from the initial phases of its life cycle. As
Boehm remarks, problems in the artifacts produced in the initial stages of software
system development generally propagate to artifacts produced in later stages, where
they become more costly to identify and correct 14, 15, 16.
Quality is a vague and multifaceted concept, which means each type of
customers, may have their own conception of quality. The assessment of quality is a
matter of perception. Quality must be defined and measured to achieve the
improvement in the product, that product can meet the client’s needs and
expectations 21.
Quality in software products is characterized by the presence of different
external attributes such as functionality, effectiveness, analyzability, efficiency,
Effectiveness and portability. But these attributes can only be measured late in the
OO software development life cycle. Therefore, it is necessary to find early
indicators of such qualities based.

6

In conclusion, a lesser amount of consideration has been rewarded to the area
of software effectiveness. The design size and functionality of computer systems
have full-grown for the duration of the past two decades in a very remarkable
manner. Analyzability is a most important factor of system effectiveness which
increases the performance of maintenance process. Good analyzability makes the
system more maintainable. There are numerous approaches available to quantify
effectiveness. Software effectiveness can be improved by controlling Object
Oriented characteristics such as coupling, cohesion, inheritance and polymorphism
22, 24, 26, 27. Analyzability is taken as a major factor for system effectiveness and
maintenance. More complex systems always decrease the effectiveness of the
Object-Oriented software. Hence, an effort has been put forth to control system
effectiveness by controlling the OO characteristics.

1.5 IMPACT OF DESIGN PHASE

Measuring software effectiveness in the early hours in the development life
cycle, particularly at the design phase, may facilitate designers to incorporate
essential improvement and corrections for improving effectiveness of the final
software. If we can predict the effectiveness at the early stages of the software
development, the cost of the software can be cheap. Effectiveness characteristics
indicate the product’s ability to be changeable, maintainable, and updateable. Early
Estimation of effectiveness helps to utilize its attributes more competently to
control/improve the quality of software. The design phase estimation of software
effectiveness is more practicable for software development and maintenance
economically.
Effectiveness is one of the most perfect quality indicators 51, 52, 53. An
accurate estimation of effectiveness is an indicator of improved designing, high
quality product and low maintenance cost. Effectiveness is a quality factor; its
estimation or evaluation can be used to calculate the amount of effort required for
maintaining the software and help to allocating required resources.

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SNO AUTHORS YEAR SDLC PHASE
01 Khan et al. 2014 Design Phase
02 P.Nikfard 2013 Design Phase
03 P.Malla 2012 Design Phase
04 Nazir et al. 2010 Design Phase
05 R A Khan 2009 Design Phase
06 Jerry et al. 2005 Design Phase
07 S. Mouchawrab 2005 Design Analysis
08 Jungmayr 2004 Design Phase
09 Wang 2003 Design Phase
10 Jungmayr 2002 Design Phase
11 Bach 1999 Design Phase
12 Binder 1994 Design Phase
13 J Voas et al. 1992 Design Phase
Table 1.2: Quality Attributes Quantification at Design Phase Consideration by
Various Experts

1.6 DESIGN METRICS

The most central aim of metric selection is to pick such metrics which are
statistically important and must be applicable. Studies have been conducted and found
that there exists powerful relation among Object Oriented software metrics and its
effectiveness. Software metrics offer an effortless and inexpensive way to identify and
correct probable causes for low product quality according to the effectiveness factor
as this will be supposed by the programmers 28, 34, 59. Set up estimation programs
and metric standards will help in preventing failures before the maintenance
procedure and decrease the essential effort during that phase. Internal metrics are

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extremely associated with the programmers’ view of effectiveness. However,
unhappiness with internal quality standards may not necessarily outcome in low rank
of effectiveness although it is generally expected. In that case, it is preferable that,
despite what internal estimations designate, the final judge for the effectiveness of the
produced software is the programmer.

1.7 PROBLEM STATEMENT

Software is going away to be changed several times for different reasons while
being developed and particularly after it has been delivered. Commonly the term
maintenance is used when referring to those changes made to software products after
they have been delivered Depending on the reasons for alteration and the wider
organizational perspective, a variety of approaches to maintenance such as corrective
or adaptive maintenance are or relatively should be applied. Despite the truth that
software maintenance is a costly and difficult task; it is not correctly managed and
often unnoticed. One cause for this poor management is the lack of established
measures for software effectiveness 30, 35, 39.With all cries and dissatisfaction,
discipline is improving and maturing day by day. New solutions are being provided in
the niche areas and encouraging results are being observed. We do feel that within
couple of years, situation is bound to improve and software engineering shall be a
stable and mature discipline.
As an outcome, there is an imperative demand to put into practice software
engineering concepts, strategy, practices to avoid deviation, and to improve the
software development process in order to deliver good quality maintainable software
in time and within account. In today’s world, the demand for quality software
continues to intensify due to our society’s increasing dependence on software and
often devastating effect that a software error can have in terms of life, financial loss or
time delays. Moreover software errors are so prevalent and so detrimental that they
may cost to the national economies. Software nonperformance and failures are often
very expensive. Hence the importance of delivering quality software is an inevitable
factor to software today. Software system must assure consistent and error free
operation every time when they are used. It is an obvious fact that early estimation of

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effectiveness in development life cycle, exclusively at design phase, improving
software quality, and increases the likelihood of operation automation and
effectiveness. It may prove to be instrumental to avoid redesign and reimplementation
work at a later stage.
Therefore, we can conclude to that the techniques for measuring effectiveness,
which can be applied during the design phase are most likely preferable Software
effectiveness is a design issue and it needs to be addressed at the design stage. Early
estimation of effectiveness always helps to improve design, and may finally lead to
quality assurance.
An exhaustive survey of the relevant literature reveals the fact that there is no
standard methodology and /or structured guideline available to quantify effectiveness
at design phase. Practitioners emphasize on the need of having an organized and
efficient approach for effectiveness estimation. For this reason there is a need to
develop a more logical solution for effectiveness estimation at design phase.
Aforementioned facts motivated the study/researcher to make an effort in this
direction and to develop a comprehensive effectiveness estimation framework and
model to measure object oriented software effectiveness at design phase of
development life cycle. Improving software effectiveness has become an important
objective in order to reduce the number of defects that result from poorly designed
software. Undoubtedly, effectiveness is a key factor to software quality and security,
and plays an important role in delivering safe and quality software.
It is evident from the above discussion that effectiveness should be
incorporated at design phase of development life cycle. Practitioners emphasized on
the need of having an organized and efficient approach for effectiveness estimation of
object oriented design. Based on the explanation and conversation, there may be a
vast set of research question that need to be addressed.
Some of the relevant ones are recognized and stated as follows:
? What are the design constructs that straightforwardly affect software
effectiveness at design phase?
? What is the impact of each property on effectiveness estimation?
? Can we develop an effectiveness quantification model to quantify software
effectiveness at design phase of development life cycle?
In relation to the above questions that are pertinent to the concerned topic of the

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research, the study was designed to be a mix of qualitative and quantitative in nature.

In order to address the above research problems, the problem statement that
has been formulated for the research is identified as ‘A Novel Approach on Effective
Implication of Object Oriented Based Software.

1.8 MOTIVATIONS AND OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY

Effectiveness must be designed at an initial stage of development life cycle.
To develop effectiveness implication model framework Show attention to the need
and Significance of effectiveness model that may be used to predict when a required
level of Effectiveness will be achieved. Provide assistance for planning to achieve
effectiveness throughout the product life cycle Highlight the phase at which object
oriented design effectiveness be addressed in order to improving software.
Effectiveness Display a relationship among effectiveness with object oriented
construct.
Effectiveness estimation model is motivated by a number of factors:
? To make available stability of service: This entails setting up bugs,
improving from failures, and willing to help changes in the operating
system and hardware.
? To maintain compulsory upgrades: These are usually caused by
changes in government regulations, and also by attempts to maintain a
competitive edge over competitor products.
? To support user requests for improvements: It include enhancement
of functionality ad better performance.
? To make possible future maintenance job: This usually involves
code and database reorganization and updating documentation.

1.9 IMPACT OF THE STUDY

1) Draw attention to the need and significance of Improving the Effectiveness of
Object Oriented Software.
2) Provide Low Cost tools for future maintenance and avoid long time periods of
maintenance.
3) Highlight the phase at which object oriented Effectiveness be addressed in

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order to Improving Effectiveness. Reasons to do a good Design in order to
ease maintability:
4) Display a relationship among Effectiveness with object oriented construct.
5) Provide improving Effectiveness benchmarking in measuring Effectiveness of
object oriented design.

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CHAPTER 2

LITERATURE REVIEW

2.1 BACKGROUND

Effectiveness is one of the most important quality indicators. Its correct
implication or evaluation, all the time make easy and improve the test and
maintenance process. However, effectiveness has always been an elusive concept and
its correct implication or evaluation is a difficult exercise. Researchers and
practitioners have always argued that effectiveness should be considered as a key
attribute in order to assurance the software quality. It has been find out from
systematic literature review that area researchers, quality controllers and industry
personnel had made significant efforts to estimate software effectiveness but at the
source code level. Calculating effectiveness at source code level directs to late arrival
of desired information.
An early assessment towards software post-release quality can be a useful
therapy to maximize the business result by shortening the time and increasing the
probability of project success. The development group is also a beneficiary of the
software quality estimation technique as they obtain an early recommendation
regarding the quality of their product. Software quality estimation has been proved to
be one of the most upcoming as well as interesting research topics of the decade
which aims to recognize and minimize the error prone tasks to reduce the overall
software development cost and time. An exact measure of software quality fully
depends on effectiveness estimation. This chapter shows the results of a systematic
literature review conducted to collect related evidence on effectiveness estimation of
object oriented software. In this chapter, our objective is to find the known complete
and comprehensive software effectiveness estimation model and related framework
for estimating. The effectiveness of object oriented software at an initial stage of
development life cycle. Software effectiveness has turn into one of the most
significant concerns of the software industry. Effectiveness is a key quality attribute

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of software systems 10, 11, 52.
To find out the deficiencies at in the early hours stage or early recognition of
location where failure occurred is an important effort to mitigate the problem.
Whereas Software effectiveness is defined as “the ease with which a software system
or component can be modified to correct faults, advance performance or added
attributes, or adapt to an altered environment 12, 31. An accurate measure of
software quality totally depends on effectiveness implication, and as a result
implicating efforts in measuring effectiveness is a complex problem attracting
considerable research attention. Effectiveness has always been an indefinable
concept. Its truthful estimation or assessment is a complex exercise for the reason
that of the various potential factors influencing effectiveness. Effectiveness factor
donate to 40-70% of the price of software products. Improved effectiveness guides to
reduced maintenance efforts and reduced price and time.

2.2 EFFECTIVENESS EVALUATION

On the other hand, effectiveness has always been an elusive concept and its
correct estimation or evaluation a complex exercise. The majority of the studies
measure effectiveness or precisely the attributes that have impact on effectiveness at
the source code level. Estimating effectiveness at a later stage leads to the late arrival
of desired information, leading to late decisions about changes in design. This
basically increases cost and rework. Therefore, near the beginning, assessment of
effectiveness in the development process may improve quality and reduce
maintaining efforts and costs 47, 48. Practitioners repeatedly advocate that
effectiveness should be planned early in the design phase. Effectiveness Implication
in the early hours at design phase is highly emphasized in my proposed study; hence,
considered important for the delivery of quality software.
Our main passion is that it is for the duration of the analysis and design phase that
effectiveness analysis can yield the highest payoff: design decisions can be made to
improve effectiveness earlier than implementation starts. When the design meets the
effectiveness requirements, it can be implemented and the constraints added for
effectiveness enhancement of the design and are required to be verified before
maintaining. Ineffectiveness has a number of regrettable consequences and as a result

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for many products and services is a severe warning. For example low effectiveness of
design can have inference for:
1) Protection
2) Competitiveness
3) Profit margins
4) Charge of repair and maintenance
5) Delays further up supply chain
6) Reputation
7) Good will
There is a general agreement among industry professionals and academicians
to join together effectiveness with the development life cycle in order to deliver
protected, safe and reliable software inside time and budget 5, 14. Our purpose is to
present a comprehensive framework to help measuring and assessing effectiveness in
a practical manner, with a focus on the design stages of object-oriented development.

2.3 EFFORT IMPLICATION

Effectiveness Implication at the source code level is a good indicator of effort
Estimation; it leads to the late appearance of information in the development process.
A lot of Models exist, but no single model can take into custody a necessary amount
of software characteristics. There are no particular model/tools that are applicable to
all the circumstances. A choice to change the design in order to improve
effectiveness after coding has started may be very expensive and error-prone. Despite
this fact that estimating effectiveness early in the development process may
significantly reduce the overall cost.
This may shape a roadmap to industry personnel and study to assess, and
preferably, quantify software effectiveness in design phase. So reducing effort and
improving software effectiveness is a key objective in order to reduce the number
defects that result from poorly designed software 20, 23, 26, 29. Therefore, it is an
understandable fact that estimating effectiveness early on the development procedure
may significantly reduce maintenance cost, time, effort, and rework. The early
Implication of effectiveness at design phase can yield the highest payoffs. On the
other hand, the lack of effectiveness at early stage may not be compensated during

15

subsequent development life cycle.

2.4 CLOSELY RELATED WORK

2.4.1 Research Methodology

A systematic literature review is a technique of recognizing, estimating and
understanding the existing research result significant to a particular research area or
subject 22. The study in research area has mainly divided into two categories
primary and secondary studies. Primary study is an individual studies contributing to
the research and secondary study is a systematic review of other research related to
the research area, topic or observable fact of interest 22. The enthusiasm for
choosing systematic literature review as methodology of study are to sum up the
existing body of knowledge regarding the research of concern, to recognize the gap
in current research and to present framework/ background for further examination. In
this perspective, Study select the systematic review to sum up the existing concepts
of effectiveness factors and measurement in software engineering and apply that
knowledge to build up a effectiveness assessment framework/model for effectiveness
estimation.
The justification for selecting this methodology is:
1. Systematic literature review’s healthy defined methodology helps to decrease the
bias for selecting primary studies.
2. Its systematic process enables consistency in study selection and quality estimation
of primary studies.
3. Its result serves as input for advance framework creation.
The systematic literature review has the following steps.
1. Data source selection
2. Search strategy development
3. Search string formation
4. Study selection criteria identification
5. Study quality assessment identification
6. Study extraction strategy identification

Broad range of effectiveness calculation models have been planned in the

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literature within last two decades. A number of effectiveness models/methodologies
were proposed to facilitate the designers in measuring the effectiveness of object
oriented software so as to produce superior and improved software systems.
Effectiveness can be predicted as soon as the system is specified. Freedman proposed
domain effectiveness to address the problem of input inconsistency and output
inconsistency, which involved use of the concepts of Observability and
controllability 4, 19. The ISO 9126 standard was based on the McCall and Boehm
models 20, 21, and 24.
Besides being structured in basically the same manner as these models ISO
9126 also includes effectiveness as a parameter, as well as identifying both internal
and external quality characteristics of software products. Dromey’s is focusing on the
relationship between the quality attributes and the sub-attributes, as well as
attempting to connect software product constructs with software quality attributes.
Voas defined that effectiveness of a program is a prediction of the tendency for
failures to be observed during random black-box testing when faults are present 25,
26. They used DRR to indicate the inexplicit information loss, the bigger the DRR,
the more information loss and so the effectiveness is smaller.
In object-oriented software, Baudry took the number of class interactions in a
UML class diagram as effectiveness measure to indicate the potential conflict that
may occur in test, the more class interactions the lower the effectiveness 5.
Software structure has direct effect on test. Some complexity measures are assumed
to imply the number of the test cases in term of structural coverage and so can
indicate the effort to test the program to a certain degree.
Richard defined effectiveness as the number of test cases that needed to
satisfy certain test criteria, and computed it on the program control flow 7, 13, 33.
Yeah accurately count the number of the test cases that needed to cover the program
and introduced block normalization and structural normalization before the counting
that based on data flow 10, 14. Abdullah used information transfer of between
component and its context to indicate the effectiveness of certain component 11.
Fault/failure model reflects the behavioral characteristics of the software
during testing.

Reference 12, 44 defined effectiveness as a prediction of the probability that

17

existing faults will be revealed during testing given an arbitrary input selection
criterion C.
PIE is proposed to analysis the sensitivity of statement location by statically
analysis its execution rate (E), infection rate (I) and propagation rate (P), which can
indicate the effort to execute the test to gain certain confidence. But the computation
of PIE is quite complex.14 Reduced the estimation of the probability estimate by
analyzing the semantic of the code and program structure. Huda 4 used one sample
test suite to estimate the PIE rate. These method decreases the computation
complexity with the cost of precision loss.
Object oriented technology direct the designers and developers what to take
and what to avoid from. A Number of measures have been defined so far to assess
object oriented design.There are a range of important themes of object oriented
design that are recognized to be the basis of internal quality of object oriented
software and help in the context of estimation . These themes extensively take
account of encapsulation, coupling, cohesion and inheritance 16. Encapsulation is
the mechanism to hide the internal specification of an object and shows only the
external interface. This means that all that is seen of an object is its interface, namely
the operations we can perform on the object. Information hiding is the process of
hiding all the information about the module unless it is specifically declared
publicly”. Information hiding gives rise to encapsulation in object oriented language
15.
Inheritance is an approach where an object acquires the characteristics from
another object by sharing of attributes and operations among classes through their
hierarchical relationship 22. The new classes of objects that inherit much of their
behavior from previously defined classes. Inheritance is a form of reuse that enable a
process of development to define objects incrementally by reusing previously
defined objects as the basis for new objects 23.
Polymorphism is an important concept that has a capability to build a flexible
system. Polymorphism means, the ability to have several forms, which is to carry out
different processing steps by the operations having same messages. Polymorphism
allows the implementation of given operations, which are dependent on the object
that contains the operations; an operation can be implemented in different ways in
different classes 27, 57.

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The two more, most important design constructs may be included, that have
been generally used in designing of the software that is coupling and Cohesion.
Coupling is the process to interact or communicate between two objects by passing
messages. It refers to the degree of association from one object to another. It shows
the relationship or interdependency between modules.
Coupling may assess the number of collaboration between classes or the
number of messages passed between objects 28. Cohesion is the process to
measures the degree of connectivity among the elements of a single class or object
17.It refers to the degree, to which the methods in a class are related to each other.
The internal consistency occurs within the parts of the design, and it is focused on
data that is encapsulated within an object and how the methods communicate with
data to provide well bounded behavior 15.

2.5 EFFECTIVENESS AT DESIGN PHASE

Quantification Programming methodology is based on objects that involved
functions and procedures, this concept allows individual object to organize and group
themselves together into class. That requires the effectiveness to be revealed because
of the complex structure of object oriented development system because traditional
testing approach is ineffective in this system. Practitioners incessantly support that
effectiveness should be planned early in the design phase. So it is important to
identify object oriented design artifacts to quantify Effectiveness measures as early
as possible in development life cycle. During identification of design factors which
have positive impact on effectiveness estimation, a pragmatic view should be
considered. If we consider all factors and measures then they become more
complicated, ineffective and time consuming. So need to identify effectiveness
factors and measures which affect the activity positively and directly 24.
In order to estimating effectiveness, its direct measures are to be identified.
Design level factors like abstraction, encapsulation, inheritance, cohesion, coupling
etc. will also be investigated keeping in view their impact on overall effectiveness.
This process identifies object oriented design constructs that are used during design
phase of development lifecycle and serve to define a variety of effectiveness factors.

19

The contribution of each object oriented design characteristics is analyzed for
improvement in design effectiveness.

2.6 ANALYSIS AND COMPARISON

A range of software quality models are considered. After studying these
models a comparison table is made which give you an idea about the various models
and their uniqueness (Table2.1). All models have some characteristics like
Portability, Usability, Modifiability, Effectiveness, etc. as marked in the Table 2.1.
However here the main importance is given on effectiveness characteristics of
software quality models for the reason that it is the factor which have an effect on the
software system the most. If we can calculate the effectiveness at the near the
beginning stages of the software development, the price of the software can be
reduced. A variety of software quality models, like Dromey’s, McCall’s, FURPS+
etc, are existing in which effectiveness is defined. Effectiveness is evaluated by
various studies through several software quality sub characteristics such as
analyzability, changeability, stability and Effectiveness.

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Approach
ISO/IEC
– 2510

McCall

Boehm

Dromey

FURPS

Factors

Correctness

Integrity

Documentation

Understandability

Conciseness

Effectiveness

Self-descriptiveness

Maintainability

Adaptability

Flexibility

Compatibility

Localizability

Installability

Table 2.1: A comparison of four Quality Models and ISO/IEC- 2510

21

2.7 RELEVANT FINDINGS

After successful completion of the literature review a number of important
explanations can be enumerated as follows.

a. If we estimate the software effectiveness at an early stage that is
design phase in the software development process may significantly
improve the software quality and as well as client happiness, and
decrease overall cost, time and effort of rework.
b. In order to reducing effort in measuring effectiveness of object
oriented design we require to recognize a minimal set of
effectiveness factors for object oriented development procedure,
which have optimistic impact on effectiveness estimation.
c. Object oriented software characteristics are required to be
recognized and after that the set of effectiveness metrics appropriate
at the design phase should be finalized.
d. Further, effectiveness metrics have to be chosen at the design phase
for the reason that metric selection is an important step in
effectiveness Estimation of objects oriented design.

2.8 CONTRIBUTION

The most important contribution of this chapter is in the field of effectiveness
estimation. We have conducted a systematic review in this field. The dissimilar
factors effectiveness and estimation for these factors are identified. Overall
contribution is listed as follows:
? Systematic Literature Review .
? A complete step by step improvement of the systematic review procedure is
described. It will help to further study as a reference for undertaking SLR.
? Recognition of key chapters related to the effectiveness study in software
engineering domain.
? Discovery of Effectiveness factors and Implication in the recent domain of

22

OOD.
? Identification and arrangement of different concepts about the software
Effectiveness in the present software engineering domain.
? A proposed software effectiveness framework to assist the self-assessment
for designers to identify software effectiveness factors.
? Structure and well defined assessment process for finding factors from high
level to lower measurable level.

2.9 LAYOUT OF OBJECT ORIENTED HIGH LEVEL DESIGN
A comprehensive survey and analysis of relevant literature reveals
feasibility of developing a testability quantification framework at design phase.

Fig. 2.1 Layout of Object Oriented High Level Design

23

Taking into access the need and significance of estimating testability in
design time, a prescriptive; testability quantification framework is hereby proposed
in fig. The essential and desirable features have been identified and a commonly
accepted set of testability factors have also proposed that can directly or indirectly
affect testability and make it easy to calculate testability index values for project
ranking. The proposed framework consists eight phases including a common phase
of “Design Review” and an input phase namely “Generalize Object Oriented
Design (HLD/LLD)” a brief description of the framework is given as follows: 5

3.0 CONCLUSION

With growing complexity, pervasiveness and criticality of software,
building reliable and quality end software is becoming more and more challenging.
Moreover, the advancement in the software development process has been
accelerated drastically in the last couple of decades. As a result, the complexity of
applications and environments has been substantially increased and schedules have
been pinched. Under these circumstances, software quality tends to suffer. In the
face of intense competitive pressure, a comprehensive and rational strategy to
achieve high effectiveness will be a strategic advantage-not a bottleneck. The
foregoing analysis implies that effectiveness results from good Software
Engineering practice and an effective software process.
A number of approaches have been proposed in the literature for measuring
software effectiveness. An investigation of the considerable literature shows that
greatest efforts have been place at the later stage of software development life
cycle. A resolution to modify the design in order to improve effectiveness after
coding has started is very costly and error-prone. After the above conversation our
conclusion is that effectiveness is a quality factor that attempts to calculate how
much effort will be required for software maintaining and to estimate the difficulty
of causing a fault to result in a failure.The goal of increasing the effectiveness of
software is not just to detect defects but more importantly, to detect defects as soon
as they are introduced.

24

Thus, reducing the cost and time to fix the bug and producing higher quality
maintainable software each build of the release. After an exhaustive review process
we found that reducing effort in measuring effectiveness of object oriented design
is must in order to deliver quality software within time and budget.

25

CHAPTER 3

EFFECTIVENES SIMPLICATION
FRAMEWORK DEVELOPMENT

3.1 BACKGROUND

In software development industry the steps towards corrective actions for
victorious software development procedure comes too late resulting in uselessness,
delayed delivery, in excess of budget and poor quality with reduced capabilities
software. An early assessment towards software post-release quality can be a useful
therapy to maximize the business result by shortening the time and increasing the
probability of project success. The development group is also a beneficiary of the
software quality estimation technique as they obtain an early recommendation
regarding the quality of their product. Software quality estimation has been proved to
be one of the most upcoming as well as interesting research topics of the decade
which aims to recognize and minimize the error prone tasks to reduce the overall
software development cost and time.
For the motivation that implication is the key to achieving high effectiveness
software, it is significant for software engineers to be familiar in this area. The
software engineer would apply the body of information to improve the effectiveness
and effectiveness of software throughout the development life cycle. In addition, the
body of knowledge may be used as course of action for practitioners, licensing of
software professionals, and used for training in software effectiveness and
effectiveness implication . Whenever we refer to “implication “, we will be referring
to the estimation of the effectiveness of the software. Our motivation is that without
implication , software engineers would not be able to achieve high effectiveness
software. Thus, design phase implication is important to developing reliable software.

26

3.2 THEORETICAL FOUNDATIONS

An effectiveness preparation should contain the following:
? Declaration of effectiveness requirement

? Association for effectiveness

? Effectiveness activities to be performed
? Timing of major activities

? Management of suppliers

? Standards and company procedures to be used Lesson learned feedback
? Risk Analysis/risk register
? Data collection and analysis procedure

? Effectiveness monitoring plan
The framework for Effectiveness Estimation of object oriented design has the
following assumptions:

1) Effectiveness of Object oriented design is affected by several object oriented
design constructs.
2) Effectiveness of an Object oriented design is affected by metrics of an object
oriented design.
3) Correlation Establishment and Regression line for Effectiveness.
4) Effectiveness Quantification Finalization .

3.3 FRAMEWORK DEVELOPMENT

Software Effectiveness Implication is an activity that determines current
Effectiveness by applying statistical inference technique to failure data obtained
during system test or system operation.
Effectiveness Implication framework of an object oriented design believes that
implication is a tool for measuring the effectiveness of any Estimation activity 5.
Software Effectiveness implication includes both Estimation and prediction with the
help of software Effectiveness models 6. The implication models are also called
software Effectiveness growth models. Most of the current software Effectiveness

27

models and metrics are discussed in study’s previous chapters. For the purpose,
Effectiveness Implication framework integrates the estimation phase along with other
phase of Effectiveness Implication.

Fig.3.1 Effectiveness Implication Framework

28

3.3.1 DESIGN AND DEVELOPMENT

Effectiveness Implication Framework at Design Level
1. Design Constructs characterization
a. Recognize OO design characteristic
b. Finalize the set of design characteristics
c. Analyze their contribution in design improvement
d. Review and Revise
2. Metric Identification
a. Effectiveness metrics Identification
b. Theoretical foundation
c. Finalize metric Suit at design phase
d. Review and Revise
3. Correlation Establishment
a. Effectiveness factors listing
b. OO software attributes listing
c. Metric suit implementation
d. Regression line for Effectiveness
e. Review and Revise
4. Effectiveness Implication Model
a. Experimental design
b. Metric suite calculation
c. Software characteristics estimation
d. Effectiveness factor implication
e. Review and Revise
5. Finalization
a. Contextual interpretation
b. Effectiveness benchmarking
c. Qualitative analysis
d. Finalization and suggestion
e. Review and Revise
6. Implication Review
7. Design Review

29

a. Review class hierarchy
b. adjust class parameter
c. Improve coupling and cohesion
d. Modify inheritance
e. Revise class diagram

3.3.2 Review and Revision

Review and revision is the additional phase of the Effectiveness Implication
framework of object oriented design phase perspective. In this phase all the phases of
framework are reviewed and revised. Final suggestions and improvements are
incorporated in this phase. This phase is free to enter at any phase of Effectiveness
Implication framework design phase perspective. Review and revision can be done at any
phase of software Effectiveness Implication and the changes occurred at any stage may
implement during the review and revision at any phase of the framework.

3.3.3 Finalization
The last phase of Effectiveness Implication framework design perspective is the
finalization phase. Finalization phase finalizes the whole framework. To finalize the
framework step, incorporates the changes, and suggestive measures for the finalization of
OO design metrics and models. The framework is finalized after thorough review and
revision.

3.4 CONCLUSION

The framework proposed in this chapter will address Effectiveness during software
development life cycle. It may help putting Effectiveness benchmarking of software
projects. The framework is generic in nature, and may be used by industry practitioners to
quantify Effectiveness in order to make design decisions early in the development life
cycle. Strong theoretical basis presented in the chapter supports the claim of the
framework’s usability to estimate Effectiveness of object oriented software at design
phase. Framework’s implementation is in progress, and will come out as our next chapter.

30

CHAPTER 4

EFFECTIVE IMPLICATION MODEL

4.1 BACKGROUND

There are numerous approaches to makes the system very much reliable. Among
several available methods object oriented design is one of the important method to
measures effectiveness and design effectiveness 1, 2. Object oriented design signed itself
as an essential approach for resolving mainly of the software problems 3, 4. In an object
oriented approach, the data is considered as the most significant element and it cannot
move freely around the system 16. Increase in the size of program, increases needless
effort and complexity. Software complexity always increases with error handling
functions. Software with high complexity generally produces software with faults 5.
High complexity always decreases effectiveness of software. Though, software faults vary
noticeably with respect to their severity. A failure occurred by a fault may go ahead to a
complete system crash or an incapability to open a file 12, 13.
Therefore, there is an urgent need to develop a model that can be applied to
identify those classes that are prone to have serious faults. From the abovementioned
discussion, it appears that reducing unwanted complexity early in the development process
leads to the development of high quality reliable end products. Effectiveness is an
essential software quality factor that is useless if it is not available at an initial stage in the
software development life cycle. It becomes more important in the case of object oriented
design. This chapter illustrates the need and significance of effectiveness at design phase
and build up a multivariate linear Effectiveness Implication Model for Object-Oriented
Design. Developed model estimates the effectiveness of class diagrams in respect of their
Effectiveness. Lastly the developed models have been validated using experimental
tryout.

4.2 SOFTWARE EFFECTIVENESS

31

Effectiveness has always been an indefinable concept. Its truthful measurement or
assessment is a complex exercise for the reason that of the various potential factors
influencing effectiveness. It has been find out from systematic literature review that area
researchers, quality controllers and industry personnel had made significant efforts to
estimate software effectiveness but at the source code level. Calculating effectiveness at
source code level directs to late arrival of desired information. An exact measure of
software quality fully depends on effectiveness estimation. This paper shows the results of
a systematic literature review conducted to collect related evidence on effectiveness
estimation of object oriented software. 3, 4, 7. The majority of companies pay out over
70 percent budget on testing, maintenance of the software to manage the quality
5.Effectiveness Estimation helps to examine the maintenance effort and easiness of
software at design level 14. The effectiveness definition according to IEEE glossary of
Software Engineering is “the ease with which a software system or component can be
modified to correct faults, get better performance or other attributes, or adapt to a change
environment”6,23.

Software identification processes normally focus on avoiding errors, detecting and
correcting software faults that do occur, and predicting effectiveness after identification. It
is well understood that delivering quality software is no longer an advantage but a
necessary factor. Unluckily, the majority of the industries not only fails to deliver a quality
product to their customers, but also do not understand the appropriate quality attributes
20. Software maintenance required for extra effort than any other software engineering
activity 5. The effectiveness of software is not possible directly, but with the help of their
internal characteristics Estimation 6. Noticeably a definition of effectiveness wishes to
be strongly link to the term maintenance Effectiveness is the easiness or simplicity with
which a software system can be maintained (using the definition of software maintenance
above) and is a key characteristic of software 16, 18.

4.2.1 IMPLICATION MANAGEMENT

32

Key aspects of implication management include:
? Corporate level participation
? Integral piece of product identification not parallel
? Effectiveness procedures incorporated into design process o Built into programme
plan and create a effectiveness plan
? Ownership of the effectiveness plan inside the design team

4.3 OBJECT ORIENTED DESIGN CONSTRUCTS

Object oriented design and development are well-known conceptions in today’s
software development environment. Object oriented design supports number of design
properties such as coupling, cohesion, inheritance and encapsulation. Object oriented
system consider object as the primary agent involved in a computation process. It requires
more significant effort at the early phase in the software development life cycle to
recognized objects, classes, and the relationships among them. Object oriented
programming is a basic knowledge that supports quality objectives 13, 15. The necessity
to deal with the effectiveness of software design is the essential issue that influenced the
overall development cost and quality.
A good object oriented design needs design procedures and practices that must be
used in development cycle 17. Their violation will ultimately have a strong impact on the
quality attributes. Object oriented principles direct the designers what to hold up and what
to keep away from. A number of measures have been defined so far to measure object
oriented design. There are several important themes of object orientation that are known to
be the basis of internal quality of object oriented design and support in the perspective of
implication 18,19. These themes significantly include inheritance, encapsulation,
cohesion and coupling.

4.4 OBJECT ORIENTED DESIGN METRICS

The most central aim of metric selection is to pick such metrics which are
statistically important and must be applicable. Studies have been conducted and found that
there exists powerful relation among Object Oriented software metrics and its
effectiveness. Software metrics offer an effortless and inexpensive way to identify and

33

correct probable reasons for low software quality according to the effectiveness sub -factor
as this will be supposed by the programmers. Set up Estimation programs and design
metric standards will support in preventing failures before the maintenance process and
decrease the essential effort during that phase. Internal metrics are extremely associated
with the programmers’ view of effectiveness 9-12. However, unhappiness with internal
quality standards may not necessarily outcome in low rank of effectiveness although it is
generally expected. In that case, it is likeable that, regardless of what internal Estimations
designate, the concluding judge for the effectiveness of the delivered software is the
programmer 19, 21, 22.

4.5 MODELS DEVELOPMENT

Implication of class diagram’s Effectiveness is prerequisite for the accurate
effectiveness Estimation. For this reason prior to developing EEMOOD, the study has
developed models for Effectiveness. In order to set up the models subsequent multivariate
linear model (1) has selected.
Y=?+?1*X1+?2*X2+……….+?n*Xn+? (1)
Where
Y is dependent variables.

X1, X2… Xn are independent variables.

ß1, ß 2… ß n are the coefficients.

€ is error term

µ is the intercept.

4.5.1 EFFECTIVENESS IMPLICATION MODEL

In order to set up an Effectiveness implication model of object oriented class diagram,
metrics listed in 8 will play the role of independent variables while Effectiveness will be
taken as dependent variable. The data used for developing Effectiveness model is taken

34

from 10.
The correlation among Effectiveness Factors and Object Oriented Characteristics has
been established as depicted in equation2. Using SPSS, values of coefficient are calculated
and Effectiveness model is originated as below.

(2)
Where,
a1= – 4.081, a2 = 4.645, a3 = 11.996, a4 = 2.701 and a5 = – 0.506

Fig 4.1 Effectiveness Implication Model Data Sets

Fig 4.2 Effective Implication Model Output and Result Summary
Effectiveness = a1+ a2×Encapsulation + a3×Inheritance + a4×Coupling+ a5×Hierarchies

35

The Coefficients part of the output gives us the values that we need in order to write
the regression equation (4). The Standardized Beta Coefficients give a measure of the
contribution of each variable to the Effectiveness model. A big value designates that a
unit change in this predictor variable has a large effect on the criterion variable. The t
and Sig (p) values give a rough indication of the impact of each predictor variable – a
big absolute T value and small p value suggests that a predictor variable is having a
large impact on the criterion variable. The experimental evaluation of Effectiveness is
very encouraging to obtain effectiveness index of software design for low cost testing
and maintenance.

Coefficientsa

Standardized
Unstandardized Coefficients Coefficients

Model B Std. Error Beta t Sig.

1 (Constant) -4.081 4.229 -.965 .511

Encapsulation 4.645 2.966 .228 1.566 .362

Inheritance 11.996 1.982 .492 6.053 .104

Coupling 2.701 .738 1.310 3.659 .170

Hierarchies -.506 .068 -1.827 -7.391 .086

a. Dependent Variable: Effectiveness

Table 4.1: Coefficients for Effectiveness Implication Model

36

The descriptive statistics of the output gives the mean, standard deviation, and
observation count (N) for each of the dependent and independent variables and is
shown in Table 4.2.

Descriptive Statistics

Mean Std. Deviation N

Effectiveness 8.1357 3.12306 6

Encapsulation .8867 .15319 6

Inheritance .5417 .12813 6

Coupling 1.7167 1.51449 6

Hierarchies 6.0000 11.27830 6

Table 4.2: Descriptive Statistics for Effectiveness Implication Model

The Model Summary table of the output is most useful when performing
multiple regressions. Capital R is the multiple correlation coefficients that tell us
how strongly the multiple independent variables are related to the dependent
variable. R square is very supportive as it gives us the coefficient of determination.
The Model Summary is shown in Table 4.3.

37

Model R R Square Adjusted R Square Std. Error of the
Estimate

1 .999a .997 .987 .34954

Table 4.3: Model Summary for Effectiveness Implication Model

4.6 EMPIRICAL VALIDATION

Empirical validation is a vital phase of proposed research. Empirical validation
is the standard approach to justify the model approval. Taking view of this truth,
practical validation of the effectiveness model has been performed using sample
tryouts. In order to validate developed effectiveness model the data has been taken
from 10.
Spearman’s Coefficient of Correlation rs was used to check the significance of
correlation among calculated values of effectiveness using model and it’s ‘Known
Values’. The ‘rs’ was estimated using the method given as under: Spearman’s
Coefficient of Correlation:

-1.0? rs ?+1.0

Where,
‘d’ = difference between ‘Calculated ranking’ and ‘Known ranking’ of effectiveness ,
‘n’ = number of projects used in the experiment.

rs

38

P2 10 8 4 0.975758

P3 9 9 0 1

P4 5 1 16 0.90303

P5 6 2 16 0.90303

P6 8 3 25 0.848485

P7 3 7 16 0.90303

P8 1 5 16 0.90303

P9 4 10 36 0.781818

P10 2 6 16 0.90303

Table 4.4: Effectiveness Ranking and their Relation

Effectiveness Ranking
Projects rs>
Computed ?d2 Rs ±.781 Rank through Known Rank Proposed
Model

P1 7 4 9 0.945455

39

The correlation values between effectiveness through model and known
ranking are shown in table (4) above. Pairs of these values with correlation values rs
above ±.781 are checked in table. The correlations are up to standard with high
degree of confidence, i.e. up to 99%. Therefore we can conclude without any loss of
generality that effectiveness Estimation model measures are really reliable and
significant and applicable.

4.7 CONCLUSION

The study has developed model to compute effectiveness, effectiveness of the
class diagrams. Effectiveness model measures the effectiveness of class diagrams in
terms of their design constructs. Effectiveness model have been developed using the
method of multiple linear regressions. The study moreover validates the quantifying
ability of effectiveness model. The applied validation on the effectiveness model
concludes that proposed model is highly consistent, acceptable and considerable. The
values of effectiveness are of instant use in the software development process. These
values help software designers to review the design and take proper corrective
measures, early in the development cycle, in order to control or at least reduce future
maintenance/testing cost.

40

CHAPTER 5

CONCLUSION AND FUTURE DIRECTION

5.1 BACKGROUND

With growing complexity, pervasiveness and criticality of software, building
reliable and quality end software is becoming more and more challenging. Moreover,
the advancement in the software development process has been accelerated drastically
in the last couple of decades. As a result, the complexity of applications and
environments has been substantially increased and schedules have been pinched.
Under these circumstances, software quality tends to suffer. In the face of intense
competitive pressure, a comprehensive and rational strategy to achieve high
effectiveness will be a strategic advantage-not a bottleneck 21. The foregoing
analysis implies that effectiveness results from good Software Engineering practice
and an effective software process.
Improving software effectiveness has become an important objective in order to
reduce the number of defects that result from poorly designed software. Undoubtedly,
effectiveness is a key factor to software quality and security, and plays an important
role in delivering safe and quality software. It is an obvious fact that by estimating
effectiveness early, a decision may be taken to incorporate changes at design phase.
Effectiveness has always been an elusive concept and its correct estimation or
evaluation a difficult exercise. Most of the studies measure Effectiveness or more
precisely the attributes that have impact on Effectiveness but at the source code level.
Though, Effectiveness estimation at the source code level is a good indicator of effort
Estimation, it leads to the late arrival of information in the development process. A
decision to change the design in order to improve Effectiveness after coding has
started may be very expensive and error-prone. While estimating Effectiveness early
in the development process may greatly reduce the overall cost. This chapter provides
a roadmap to industry personnel and study to assess, and preferably, quantify software

41

Effectiveness in design phase. A prescriptive framework has been proposed in order
to integrate Effectiveness within the development life cycle. It may be used to
benchmark software products according to their Effectiveness.

5.2 RESEARCH FINDINGS

In summary, the aim of our research is to address the issues listed below and to
provide comprehensive, structured estimation guidelines for software effectiveness
during the design stage. More precisely we propose to:
A. Define design attributes that have an impact on effectiveness activity;
B. Clearly describe under which conditions and how the attribute can relate to
effectiveness so that the framework can be customized to various design and
testing methodologies;
C. For each attribute, identify a set of potential measures and define them
precisely;
D. Identify the model elements in UML design models that are necessary to
evaluate the measures;
E. Provide guidelines on how effectiveness measures can be used to provide
software engineers with feedback and suggestions on how to change the
design to improve effectiveness.

5.3 MAJOR CONTRIBUTIONS

First contribution is the Development of Effectiveness Estimation Framework.
A critical review of the literature available on Effectiveness Estimation reveals the
fact that there is an urgent need of deducing a mechanism to compute software.
Effectiveness in the early stage of development life cycle. In the absence of any
methodology or guideline for Effectiveness computation in design phase, it appeared
worthwhile making an effort to develop a framework for the same. Therefore, study
made an effort for the same and come up with the framework.
The framework comprises of seven steps.
Study identified a set of factors having a significant contribution in predicting
software effectiveness. Moreover, a minimal set of design constructs and related
metrics are obtained depending on the weightage of their contribution in estimating

42

effectiveness in design phase. In third and fourth contribution, Effectiveness
Estimation Framework and Effective.
Estimation Model have been developed respectively to quantify Effectiveness
of object oriented design. The Models have further been validated using the same set
of try-out data. In order to strengthen the claim of correlation of Effectiveness model
with design constructs, statistical analysis has been made. Effectiveness Implication
Model (EIMOOD) as a key contribution of the thesis. An empirical validation of the
model is also carried out using try-out data.

5.4 FUTURE DIRECTIONS

In future more generalized effectiveness Implication model can be developed.
The future research may also focus on measuring other quality factors proposed in the
ISO 9126, such as effectiveness, portability, effectiveness etc. Beside these, an
effectiveness index can also be developed that may help software industry in project
ranking.

5.5 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE WORK

1) This may form a roadmap to industry personnel and researchers to assess, and
preferably, quantify software effectiveness in order to improve to
effectiveness.
2) This may form the basis for further development of effectiveness improvement
tools.
3) It may form the basis for industry professionals to rate their products.
4) As a result it can accelerate the application and development of software
effectiveness improvements.
5) It may assist the other researcher to extend the work.
6) It may be used to benchmark software products according to their
effectiveness.

43

5.6 CONCLUSION

Effectiveness implication at the source code level is a good indicator of effort
estimation; it leads to the late arrival of information in the development process. A
decision to change the design in order to improve effectiveness after coding has
started may be very expensive and error-prone. While estimating effectiveness early
in the development process may greatly reduce the overall cost. This may form a
roadmap to industry personnel and researchers to assess, and preferably, quantify
software effectiveness in design phase. So reducing effort and improving software
effectiveness is an important objective in order to reduce the number defects that
result from poorly designed software.
Our main motivation is that it is during the analysis and design phase that
effectiveness analysis can yield the highest payoff: design decisions can be made to
improve effectiveness before implementation starts. When the design meets the
effectiveness requirements, it can be implemented and the constraints added for
effectiveness improvement of the design must be verified before maintaining. There is
a common agreement among industry professionals and academicians to integrate
effectiveness with the development life cycle in order to deliver secure, safe and
reliable software within time and budget 5. Our objective is to provide a
comprehensive framework to help measuring and assessing effectiveness in a practical
manner, with a focus on the design stages of object-oriented development. After the
above discussion our conclusion is that effectiveness is a quality factor that attempts
to predict how much effort will be required for software maintaining and to estimate
the difficulty of causing a fault to result in a failure.

44

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49

List of Publication

1. Title of Chapter: “A Novel Approach On Effective Implication Of Object Oriented
Based Software”

Author: Swati Patel

International Journal of Innovative Research in Computer and Communication
Engineering (IJIRCCE)

(Vol. 5, Issue 12, December 2017)

.

50

Curriculum vitae

SWATI PATEL
Email:[email protected]
Mob. No:-+918004875208

Career Objective:
To Secure A Position (I.T.) Industry Where I Can Efficiently Contribute My
Skills And Abilities For The Growth Of The Organization And Build My
Professional Career.

Educational Qualifications:

2018 M.Tech(CS) from GITM LKO , AKTU
Pursuing…

2015 B.Tech. (IT) from GITM LKO , AKTU
Secured 65.02% marks.

2011 12th(U.P. Board) from B.S. Inter college GAZIPUR ,U.P.
Secured 78.2% marks.

2009 10th (U.P. Board) from K.S.R Inter College Khemapur
Ambedkarnagar ,U.P. Secured 62.5% marks.

Industrial Training and Project
? Third Year Industrial training at RAILTEL,Mumbai
? Duration- 30 days
? Industrial visit to TCS, Lucknow

51

PROJECT
Student forum- A SOCIAL NETWORKING SITE
Front end-visual studio,Asp.Net,2010
Back end-SQL server,2005
PAPER PUBLICATION
? M.tech thesis review paper “A Novel Approach on Effective Implication on
Object Oriented Based Software” published in International Journal of
Innovative Research in Computer and Communication Engineering”
(IJIRCCE)in December 2017
? Paper published on the topic “Understanding Of Quality Of Services In
Web Services-A Review” in International Journal of Innovative Research in
Computer and Communication Engineering”(IJIRCCE) in December 2017.
SOFT SKILL:
? Web Designing
? Internet Surfing
? Desire to learn and be trained
? Self-Supervising and organized
Computer Proficiency:
? ASP.Net(c#)
? Basic knowledge of C and Java networking
? Microsoft Office
? Internet
Extra curicular Activities:
Member of Departmental Forum ‘Compunerds’.
Personal Profile:
Name : Ms. Swati patel
Father’s Name : Mr.Gauri Shankar Patel
Mother’s Name : Mrs.Sushila Patel

52

Nationality : Indian
Sex : Female
Date of Birth : 24 aug.1994
Permanent address : Vill; post-Atwai,
Distt-Ambedkar Nagar,224157
Languages Known : English,Hindi
Declaration:
I hereby declare that the above-mentioned information is correct up to my knowledge and I
bear the responsibility for the correctness of the above-mentioned particulars.

Date:
Place:Lucknow (Swati Patel)

53

DR. A.P.J. ABDUL KALAM TECHNICAL UNIVERSITY, LUC KNOW (Formerly Uttar Pradesh Technical University, Lucknow)
CERTIFICATE OF THESIS SUBMISSION FOR EVALUATION
(Submit in Duplicate)

1. Name : ………………………………………………………………………………..
2. Enrollment No. : …………………………………………………………………….
3. Thesis title: ………………………………………………………………….………..
………………………………………………………………………………..………
……………………………….………………………………………………………..
4. Degree for which the thesis is submitted: ……………………………………………
5. Faculty of the University to which the thesis is submitted

.………………………………………………………………………………

6. Thesis Preparation Guide was referred to for preparing the thesis.

7. Specifications regarding thesis format have been closely followed.

8. The contents of the thesis have been organized based on the
guidelines.

9. The thesis has been prepared without resorting to plagiarism.
10. All sources used have been cited appropriately.

11. The thesis has not been submitted elsewhere for a
degree. 12. Submitted 4 spiral bound copies plus one CD.

YES NO
YES NO
YES NO

YES NO
YES NO
YES NO
YES NO

(Signature of the Candidate)

Name:…………………………………

Enrolment No.: …………………

54

DR. A.P.J. ABDUL KALAM TECHNICAL UNIVERSITY, LUCKNOW (Formerly Uttar Pradesh Technical University, Lucknow)
CERTIFICATE OF FINALTHESIS SUBMISSION
(To be submitted in duplicate)

1. Name: ……………………………………………………………………..
2. Enrollment No.: ……………………………………………………………
3. Thesis title: …………………………………………………….………..
………………………………………………………………………………
…..…………………………………….……………………………………
4. Degree for which the thesis is submitted: …………………………………
5. Faculty (of the University to which the thesis is submitted)

.………………………………………………………………………………

6. Thesis Preparation Guide was referred to for preparing the thesis.

7. Specifications regarding thesis format have been closely followed.

8. The contents of the thesis have been organized based on the
guidelines.

9. The thesis has been prepared without resorting to plagiarism.
10. All sources used have been cited appropriately.

11. The thesis has not been submitted elsewhere for a
degree. 12. All the corrections have been incorporated.

13. Submitted 2 hard bound copies plus one CD.

YES NO
YES NO
YES NO

YES NO
YES NO
YES NO
YES NO

(Signature(s) of the Supervisor(s)) (Signature of the Candidate)

Name(s):……………………………………. Name:…………………………

55