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1. Define personality?
Personality is a dynamic and organized set of features possessed by an individual that uniquely influences her/his motivations, cognitions and behaviors in different ways.
2. Explain the impact of culture on personality
Culture is shared values beliefs and norms of a specific group of people.
Personality is a specific combination of attitudinal, emotional and behavioral response patterns of a human being.
Culture can influence personality if they are individualistic or collectivistic. People in individualistic tend to be more interested in their own ways while the later focuses on their attention on others.
Culture is one of the many factors that have an impact on personality, through culture people learn what they are expected of them and act accordingly to the beliefs and norms of the society.
The way we perceive the world can be affected by our views on culture naturally. For example a person born in a comfort zone culture will grow up knowing the world is an adventure and excitement place as compared to the other people not born in a relaxed culture.
Culture changes the emotional, spiritual and physical thinking of persons. It makes a person to have some habits which becomes comfortable as a result of training, repetition and familiarity. People living in a hostile environment of murders, rapists, gun violence, and thieves have different personality as compared to the pastoralists, hunters and gatherers or those living in rural areas.
3. Discuss the major components of culture
1. Religion
This is a set of practices and beliefs regarding the spiritual realm beyond the visible world. Religious beliefs provide guidelines to people’s behaviors and explanation to human condition.
It also provides important ways on how to behave and establishes sexual norms
2. Health beliefs
Health beliefs deal with a variety of assumptions about the causes of diseases and their proper curative. These remedies varies from one culture to another, for example others will seek healing from spiritualists, acupuncturists, herbalists, doctors and shamans
3. Language and communication
A language and communication style refers to a broad variety of nonverbal and verbal patterns and behaviors including the social customs about when the communication takes place and by whom. Mostly the first language is acquired from the surroundings.
4. Family relationship
A family is a group of people related by blood, marriage or adoption. A family is a primary unit of the society where children are nurtured on social life and culture’s particular altitudes, values, beliefs and behaviors. The family plays a major role in culture in that it lays down roles, dynamics, structures and expectations to be followed and respected.
5. Political power
Political power is a group of level of formal development in local, state national governments as well as informal organizations. People in power mostly influence the public policy decisions to benefit the groups’ interests. Those that oppose politicians end up being humiliated and sidelined; this is seen mostly in African countries.
6. Sexuality
These include sexual intimacy, identity, orientation, reproduction and sensuality. Sensuality enables a person to feel good about their bodies’ looks and feelings. Sexual identity deals with responsibilities of both men and women in a society while sexual intimacy focuses on emotional needs. Reproduction and sexual health deals with the ability to bear health children. People from different cultural back ground have different opinions on sexuality for example age, marriage and reproduction.
7. Gender roles
Roles are appropriate and acceptable behaviors expected from male and female throughout the world. Men have major roles as compared to the women who have fewer responsibilities.
8. Level of acculturation
Acculturation is a process that occurs when two separate cultural groups come in contact with each other and change occurs in at least one of the two groups’. Culture changes when it comes in contact with other cultures
4. Discuss the process of diffusion of innovations
Diffusion of innovations is a theory that explains how, why and at what rate new ideas and technology spread.
The diffusion curve shows the life cycle of innovations. The D-curve derives from assumption that new products are likely to have ‘product life’. The five stages of adoption process are
a) Knowledge
This stage an individual is first exposed to an innovation but has no clues about the innovation. An individual has not yet decided what to do
b) Persuasion
In this stage an individual is interested in the innovators innovations and actively looks for more information about the innovations.
c) Decision
This stage an individual weighs the disadvantages/advantages of the innovation and decides if to take or reject the innovation.
d) Implementation
This is whereby the individual employs the innovation to a different degree depending on the situation. Here the individual understands the usefulness and may want to know more information about the innovation
e) Confirmation
In this stage the individual decides to implement the innovation and uses it to the fullest.

CAT ONE DED 1104 FOUNDATIONS OF CULTURAL DEVELOPMENT
1. Discuss the socialization process
The Socialization process is the process of learning and internalizing the beliefs, values and norms of a social group by which people become functioning members of a society
This process begins at infancy stage and is more productive when a child begins to understand and starts to use the first language acquired.
The socialization process is also a lifelong process that continues into adulthood. The society we live in plays a major role in socialization process; we adapt different ideas and new ideas according to our surroundings.
Religion and schools also stimulates this process of socialization by teaching people the most important values and norms of the society.
On the other hand social medias play an important role in conveying messages to the society at large.
2. Discuss the process of social change
Social change is a social process whereby attitudes and values of a society are modified
According to theorist Donna Gorse social change is a step-by-step theory which stands for knowledge, attitude, beliefs and behaviors
Communities proceeds through a series of steps to achieve social change. These steps are knowledge of issues, changing attitudes about the issue, beliefs forming about the issue and lastly how developing behaviors deal with the issue
People change with their surroundings, living in a rural area is different from living in an urban area. Urban people are more informed than those in the rural area due to technological aspect.
Socialization happens among parties, people tend to change gradually as they grow and travel from different areas learning new things.
Change can also happen in when one goes to public places like schools, like schools, praying areas, hospitals and games can promote social change.
The aspect of social change can bring about negative changes like acquiring of bad values and behaviors leading to arising of criminal acts and spoilt society.

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3. Discuss five factors influencing social change in a contemporary society
a) Science and technology
The new scientific inventions and technologies are rapidly influencing the social change in human beings. These technologies are changing the physical environment and material culture of each society
Mechanization brings changes in the economic structure and relations leading to change in old values, ideas and norms
b) Natural factors
Natural hazards like droughts, floods, storms, earthquakes, diseases, famines, blizzards disrupts the social system of people and forces change in their social conditions and life’s of the affected people. These changes can either be positive or negative for example, these hazards can cause people to lose life but also makes man to find solution to such hazards
c) Demographic factors
The population increase and decrease always brings about social problems. When there is high fertility rate, unemployment, poverty, diseases become a problem to the society. On the other hand when there is a low birth rate the population decreases and the society cannot make full use of the natural resources.
Sex ratio is also a problem because it encourages and comes along with customs of polygamy.
d) Geographical factors
The cultural life of people depends on the physical environment. The climatic conditional and physical features affect the social life of people. Development also depends upon the availability of natural resources like, water, minerals, livestock, land, their exploitation and how are they being recouped and preserved.
e) Socio-economic factors
The means of production and distribution of materials in a society must be stable, but when it becomes unstable there is change in the economy. Urbanization creates a lot of social amenities and good housing and job opportunities but negatively the crime rate becomes high and outbreak of diseases
f) Biological factors
These are factors which determine the section, structure and hereditary qualities of generations. Each generation is dynamic meaning; it keeps on changing from the previous generations to the later one. New ideas forms and values keep on changing from one generation to another.
4. Discuss the theory of diffusion of innovation theory in relation to cultural diffusion of new ideas
Cultural diffusion is when different cultures are spread into different areas.
Diffusion of innovation is a theory that seeks to explain how, why and at what rate new ideas and technology diffuses through a specific population or social system.
• Human beings are uniquely made because they can communicate through speech. Due to human communication and interaction people are able to learn new cultural ideas, norms, and new languages. These can be learnt from schools, hospitals, work places, and worshipping places due to the diffusion innovations
• Culture is a social system whereby all individuals are surrounded by it. These are like politics, morals, religion, ideology, due to technological innovations like mobile phones, digital communications, internet and fax, has made people to be informed and learn different cultures from these means of communication thus cultural diffusion.
• They say travel expands our minds and introduces us to undiscovered worlds, due to innovation of different means of transport people are able to move from one place to another learning different cultural ways of living, construction of houses and many other things, fashion and designs in the clothing industries and new discoveries are discovered. People are able to learn new ideas and leave their traditional ways.
• Cultural diffusion has improved the trading ways of people thus leading to economic growth. Long time ago people traded using the barter trade and local trade but now to the diffusion of innovation people can exchange and buy different commodities in the market from anywhere in the world. People accessible to goods and services
• The spread of music throughout the world illustrates cultural diffusion. For example African and European musical traditions can now be blended and due to innovations of musical instruments and marketing people are able to enjoy music and learn new cultural beliefs and values.
• On the other hand these innovations and cultural diffusions have caused a lot of harm to children. The traditional culture has been eroded and western culture has dominated thus people forgetting their culture and losing their values and beliefs.
• Children are being introduced to being robots and forgetting the stimulating and energizing games and exercises. The hard work and thinking capacity is being wiped away by the diffusion of innovation. Aping of new culture is becoming a day dreaming aspect to the new generations.
• Strange and incurable diseases are emerging, for example AIDS, Cancer, Ebola are all spreading very fast due to cultural erosion and diffusion. People have forgotten their cultural practices and acquired new ones which are causing more harm than good to them. Marriage, circumcisions, dressings are some of the things cultural diffusion has influenced with the new diffusion of innovations